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COMMUNITY-BASED DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT IN TH

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Maraya Bien

on 1 November 2016

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Transcript of COMMUNITY-BASED DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT IN TH

COMMUNITY-BASED DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND MANAGEMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES:
FOCUS ON PASIG CITY

Hyogo Framework for Action
168 countries , 2005, Kobe, Japan

reduce “disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries”

- disaster risk reduction- and resilience-oriented approach
Community Participation
- community participation must be among the three key activities governments must promote

Gov't programs and policies must:

promote volunteerism
manage local resources (including volunteers)
create clear roles for the stakeholders
provide the needed funding and resources
Why Engage the Community?
fosters cooperation and strengthens the preparedness of individuals as well as communities
more responsive
cost-effective and efficient
particularly true for developing countries
timelier response
Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction and Management (CDRRM)
- calls for the involvement of the members of at-risk communities in the entire disaster risk management cycle
CDRRM: A BASIC FRAMEWORK
(1) Community as main actor
(2) Capacity-building of the community
(3) Utilization of local resources
(4) Involvement of all stakeholders
(5) Sensitivity to cultural and gender differences
(6) Clear responsibilities and accountability
(7) Linked to the development process
(8) Sustainable

CDRRM IN THE PHILIPPINES
3rd-most disaster-prone country in the world (2011-2013)
high level of exposure to natural hazards
lack of coping and adaptive capacities
1970-2012 :
Php670 billion
39,723 deaths
Republic Act 10121
Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010
legal foundation of the country’s disaster risk reduction policies and strategies
National Disaster Risk Reduction Management Plan
National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council
allotment of 5% of estimated revenue from regular sources for DRRM (preparedness and risk-mitigation)
Promotion of CDRRM
Section 2. Declaration of Policy. - It shall be the policy of the State to promote the involvement and participation of all sectors and all stakeholders concerned, at all levels especially the local community
Decentralization of DRRM: a step towards the greater mainstreaming of CDRRM
Local governments = ideal conduits of training and transferring knowledge on disaster management
Inclusion of representatives from different sectors to the LDRRMC
4 from CSOs, 1 from private sector, 1 from Phil. Red Cross
Inadequate and Ineffective
Disaster Management System
reactive approach to disasters
Weak capacity
Community participation was also largely absent
THE CASE OF PASIG CITY
10th largest component of MM
4th richest city
pop.: 617,301 (2007)


Gawad KALASAG awardee
Disaster Risk Profile
1. Flooding
Pasig River and the Marikina River
low holding capacity

2. Earthquake
located on top of the West Valley Fault
137 vital structures located within a 10-meter easement of the fault


3. Fire
population density: 38, 851/km2
manufacturing plants and factories
homes made from lightweight materials
Pasig City Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan (PCDRRMP),
main disaster management framework
two major changes:
disaster response and recovery + disaster risk reduction and mitigation
community participation in disaster management
The paradigm shift is reflected on the city’s DRRM programs and activities
Information Dissemination
Capacity-building
Harnessing Volunteerism
Information Dissemination
main actors in the DRRM process


Disaster risk analysis
video infomercial
Seminars on flood and earthquake awareness
brochures and flyers
CDRRM seminars in the eight most critical barangays
Capacity-building
institutionalization of its capacity-building activities
Rescue Emergency Disaster (RED) Training Center
training facility
"almost-real" simulated environment
cost of use is subsidized by Pasig City
drills, seminars, etc.
Harnessing Volunteerism
Rescue 211, has been institutionalized and is now a structural unit of the local government called the “Pasig City Search and Rescue”
received trainings in public safety, health care and emergency rescue services
management of volunteer groups to facilitate coordination between the groups and also promote accountability
CDRRM IN JAPAN
long tradition of community involvement in DRRM
suibo-dan (flood fighting) & syobo-dan (firefighting) = Tokugawa (1600-1868)
jisyubo (earthquake)= 1970S

integration of disaster preparedness exercises into school programs and cultural activities
as early as nursery school


"self-help"
e.g. 1995 Kobe earthquake & Miracle of Kamaishi
THE KATSUSHIKA CITY MODEL
special ward
land area of 34.84 km2 and a total population of 448,680
Earthquake and flooding
Community participation in DRRM in the city is handled at three levels: the prefectural, municipal and community level
Key Features:
1. Defined functions for the different levels
TMG: policy direction, limited support
MG: support: funding, training, equipment, management of CBOs
CBO: capacity building of members, information dissemination, conduct of regular drills, conduit between the people and the government


2. Involvement of different stakeholders
private sector
thru TMG Ordinance
NPO
7th Block of Higashi-Shin-Koiwa CBO works with an NPO that specializes in capacitating people to prepare for and respond to floods.

3. Proactive and organized community involvement
CBOs: with structure, and clear, delineated functions

7th Block of Higashi-Shin-Koiwa CBO:

divided into different divisions with specific areas of responsibility
collects annual membership fees
CONCLUSIONS
1. Top-down Approach
Sectoral representation in the LDRRMC is required, but what exactly is the extent and depth of their participation?
roles of community members are limited to that of beneficiaries or implementers

2. Lack of Initiative from the Community
Pasig vs. Katsushika
CBOs have initiated their own programs
CDRRM = new concept in the Phils. + top-down method increases dependence on the gov't ---> no need or desire to initiate policies or programs

3. Lack of Sustainability

can the communities continue the city's programs?

Can the programs be replicated by other LGUs?

Recommendations
1. organize CBOs

Barangay - smallest political subunit in the country

2. Drum-up support at the grassroots level
link disaster risk awareness and preparedness activities to local cultural activities

3. Promote greater genuine involvement in policymaking

regular meetings + feedback mechanism
4. Better integrate disaster education in school lessons and activities
culture of preparedness

5. Work with private sector and NPOs to increase the resource base

6. Giving of official recognition to the best practices of CBOs

encourages CBOs to continually develop and improve
helps spread information on best CDRRM practices that may be duplicated by other CBOs
Maraming Salamat!
2009 Typhoon Ketsana:
23 killed
Php37 million in damages
6807 houses were completely destroyed
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