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The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE)

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Julie Silverman

on 2 June 2015

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Transcript of The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE)

The Abbasid Dynasty (750-1258 CE)

*The Abbasid Dynasty was one of the three great dynasties of the Muslim Empire
*The capital was originally Damascus, in Syria, and was later moved to Baghdad, in modern day Iraq.
Abbasid Government
Religion
Achievements
*Ibn Sina wrote the "Cannon of Medicine" in 1025
*It was an encyclopedia describing diseases and treatments that were far ahead of any medical work done at this time
*Monarchy
*The early Abbasid dynasty consisted of a
centralized
government and held complete power over their entire region, creating an imperial state.
*Later, the Abbasid territory became too large to control, and in result their government was weakened and it became more decentralized.
*The Abbasid Dynasty heavily relied upon past Persian Bureaucracy. Often proving difficult to control vast provinces, much control was held in Baghdad.
*Made artwork and tools out of metal, wood, and pottery.
The Rise of the Abbasid Dynasty
*The Abbasid empire was derived from the name
Abu al-Abbas
, relative of the prophet Muhammad.
*This dynasty came into power in 750 C.E.
*They overtook the Umayyad Caliphate and in result built their empire off of the Umayyads
*Baghdad was much closer to trade routes, therefore it was a better and a more centralized location that boosted the Abbasid economy
Important Caliphs
Abbasid Economy
Social Systems
Role of Non-Muslims
*It was considered the
"Islamic Golden Age"

Trade
*Trade was an important part of Abbasid economy

*They exported many goods such as grain, metals, cloth, medicines, paper and sugar, in exchange for other goods

*Dhows were used by Muslim traders during long distance trade over sea
*Astrolabes were used during this time by Muslim traders to navigate by sea
*Baghdad being of a more major center of world commerce, which allowed the Abbasid Dynasty to succeed through trade
*This created wealth and allowed the economy to thrive
-
Merchants
-The Poor (Qur'an)
-Construction of New Architecture -Hospital Care
Science & Mathematics
Literature
Architecture
Art
Poems
*Excelled in science, mathematics, poems, architecture, art and literature
*Al Khwarizmi adapted the Hindu numerals and developed the number system we used today
*He also produced many algebraic discoveries and hence was considered "the father of algebra".
*The Rubaiyat was a series of poems centered around love
*It later inspired poets of the Medieval time
*Still today Abbasid writing is considered advanced and sophisticated
*"The Thousand and One Nights" was a series of stories that resembled the upper class culture of the Abbasid Dynasty
*Some of the stories in this collection were created in the 12th century
*One well known story from the series is the "Arabian Nights"
*Elaborate mosques were built such as the Al-Aqsa Mosque (Dome of the Rock) and the Mosque of Samarra were built during this time.
*Notice the golden domes and golden top minarets that became popular during this time.
*These architectural features created during the Abbasid ruling separated the Islam culture from other culture during the time.
*They were very successful in trade and developed new technologies such as astrolabes and dhows
*Art often expressed the higher class urban setting using collages, works of pottery, and carvings.
*Practicing Muslims were treated with higher levels of respect compared to nonpracticing Muslims
*Foreign Muslim followers were treated more highly under the law compared to non-Muslims from the Abbasid Dynasty
750 C.E
1258 C.E
al-Mandi (775-785 C.E)
*Slaves were able to gain their freedom by giving their rulers healthy sons
*There was a separation between the extremely wealthy practicing Muslims and the poor practicing Muslims, but other than that distinction, practicing Muslims were thought as equals
*created unique pieces of tapestry, unlike any in the world at that time
The Fall of the Abbasid Dynasty
*failed to convert the Shi'a to Islam
Harun al-Rashid (786-809)
*was the fifth caliph of the Abbasid
*He was considered the greatest leader of the Abbasid Caliphate *He was remembered through the Arabian Nights
*fully established the Abbasid court (which was a place for learning and scientific discovery)
al-Ma'mun (813-833)
The Choosing of Caliphs
*the Abbasid family claimed to be descendants of the prophet Muhammad
*Slaves were put into slave armies to attack other regions
*Islam
*Many of their cultural aspects were based on Islam such as art , architecture and literature
*Harun al-Rashid- was remembered through the Arabian Nights (which made it very important to Abbasid culture)
*Often times merchants of the Muslim faith joined Christian and Jewish vessels. They had different Sabbaths, which allowed business to continue.

*Long distant journeys proved to be the most profitable due to luxury items being the most popular.
*While trading many people would be converted to Islam which led to the expansionism of their beliefs and broadening of their territory
Production
*The establishment of both government and private businesses led to the creation of specialty products that were unique to other cultures during that time.
*The creation of Islam- Muhammad ventured from Mecca and was forced into a cave due to the harsh sand storms. The angel Gabriel visited him in his cave and spoke the messages of god (The five pillars).
*al-Mandi's failure to convert different faiths to Islam and settle different forms of succession led to unsteady infrastructure of government.
*Weakened bureaucracy-Move out of Baghdad
Seljuk Turks-took over but kept the name
Nomadic tribes invaded and in result the dynasty collasped
Impacted Social Systems
*Education
*Resembled Mediterranean theories
*Preserved Greek-Medicine, Algebra, Geometry, as well as Ethics. Rewritten in Arabic
By- Julie S, Zach S, Brenna H
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