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Civil rights Court Cases
Transcript of Civil rights Court Cases
Everyone got a slide to themselves, so expect differing styles
Brown vs Board of Education
On May 17, 1954, the Court unanimously ruled that "separate but equal" public schools for blacks and whites were unconstitutional. The Brown case served as a catalyst for the modern civil rights movement, inspiring education reform everywhere and forming the legal means of challenging segregation in all areas of society.
None of the five lower courts did away with the laws mandating segregated schools. In Kansas, for example, the ruling held that Topeka’s black schools were “substantially” equal enough to meet the Plessy doctrine. Nonetheless, the plaintiffs received some hopeful signs that the outcome would change on appeal. In South Carolina, Judge J. Waties Waring issued a dissenting opinion in which he called segregation in education “an evil that must be eradicated.” In Delaware, the court found that the 11 black children named in the case were entitled to attend the white school in their communities.
The Court also noted that segregation has a detrimental effect upon children of color and that the impact is more profound when it has the sanction of the law. To reach this conclusion, the Court made the unusual decision to rely on social science more than legal precedent. In its arguments and brief, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund had provided the testimony of more than 30 social scientists affirming the harmful effects of segregation on blacks and whites.
1950-60's court cases on
by Andrew, Jaelah, Emahjh, Lifnehyah, and Malekei
Loving v.s. Virginia
Baker v. Carr
This case was started by Charles Baker filing suit against Joe Carr, the Secretary of State for Tennessee. Baker complained that supposedly the Tennessee Legislature had not redrawn its legislative districts since 1901, in violation of the Tennessee State Constitution which required redistricting according to the federal census every 10 years. Baker lived in an urban part of Tennessee. He stated that the demographics of the state had changed shifting a greater proportion of the population to the cities, thereby diluting his vote. He said this went against the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This case questioned whether federal courts have jurisdiction to hear a constitutional challenge to a legislative apportionment.
In 1958, two residents of Virginia, Mildred Jeter, a black woman, and Richard Loving, a white man, were married in the District of Columbia. The Lovings returned to Virginia shortly thereafter. The couple was then charged with violating the state's antimiscegenation statute, which banned inter-racial marriages. The Lovings were found guilty and sentenced to a year in jail (the trial judge agreed to suspend the sentence if the Lovings would leave Virginia and not return for 25 years).
Why it is important :
This is important because this started interracial marriage. Now interracial marriage is allowed in all parts of the country because of this case. The Loving Story rouses discussion and debate about interracial marriage and tolerance in the US. It brings together all groups with stakes in marriage equality to seek out commonalties and understanding. It examines the miscegenation crime the Lovings were accused of committing – its roots based in slavery and its lingering, pervasive impact. Freshly revealed,the Loving’s story inspires mixed race couples and their children to share their struggles and claim their unique identities.
pics of the cases
Reynolds v Sims
A Supreme Court case ruled that State Legislature Districts had to roughly equal their population
Sims and a voter from Jefferson County, Alabama, challenged the apportionment of Alabama Legislature
Before urban counties were often drastically underrepresented
8 justices struck down state senate inequality based on "One person, one vote"
The principle of "One person, One vote" was extended to congressional districts (but not to senate)
Outcome: Passed a constitutional amendment (Decided June 15, 1964)
The people involved
Potter Stewart issued that court didn't need to provide any guidelines for apportionment
John Marshall Harlan II: criticized the court for ignoring the original intent of the Equal Protection Clause
David J. Vann, John McConnell: Voters from Alabama who challenged the apportionment of the State Legislature
Chief Justice Earl Warren: The Judge