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Year 9 History- Living in Australia 1900-1914

What was life like in Australia at the turn of the century?
by

Adelaide Lee-Warner

on 6 December 2013

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Transcript of Year 9 History- Living in Australia 1900-1914

SOCIAL CLASSES
STREETS & HOMES OF CITIES & TOWNS
is here
AUSTRALIA
1901-1914

Dusty, noisy & dirty
Wood-paved/dirt full of horses
People walked through - mud/ dust/ horse manure
Electric trams (intro 1890s) = problem for horses.
Argyle St, The Rocks; 1901
'Mechanical Monsters'
Men, Women & children
While the men worked, women tended the household and looked after children
Household duties = labour intensive, no electrical appliances
Clothes washed by hand, family wash could take a whole day
Women spent most of the day preparing and cooking dinner - no refrigeration
Meat and perishables kept in ice chest
Upper Class: very rich, owned lots of land & businesses or inherited wealth
Middle class: small shopkeepers/ self-employed/ professional occupations (lawyers, teachers, accountants)
Working class: under a boss, usually manual. Most belonged here with little money
HOME AND SOCIAL ENTERTAINMENT
Home:
Books & newspapers
Music; piano, gramophone, singalongs
Card games; cribbage & euchre
Social:
Live theater productions/ musical recitals and the circus
Dancing; wealthy held balls
to meet the opposite sex
Alcohol consumption
Gambling; e.g. horses
WORKING CONDITIONS

Factories:
No toilets
Temps up to 40 degrees
Worked between 8am-6pm
Labourers:
worked on dangerous sites
no safety regulations
CHILD LABOUR
•Common for children aged 8 to work in factories, textile mills and the boot trade
•60 hour weeks
•Cheap labour and could clean under spaces that were very small
•Paid equivalent to 2 cents/hr
• 1901 – 20% of workers were unmarried women
• Domestic servants – maids, cooks for rich families
• Some ‘live in’ and were well treated
• Some bosses would take advantage of female servants or were seduced and fell pregnant.
They were sacked and thrown out on the streets
FEMALE SERVANTS
Year 9 History
Australia and World War I
Australia Between the Wars
Australia and World War II
Federation
A federation is the joining of states to become one nation.
In 1860 there were six British colonies in Australia. The main laws of the colonies were made by the British Parliament
People began to realise that for matters like defence, controlling immigration and economy, a nation would be stronger than individual colonies.
State Dilemmas
Free Trade Vs Protection
Friendly Relations Between Colonies
Where to place a capital?
Fear
Power?
White Australia
Labour
WHITE AUSTRALIA
Arguments for
The Policy
Impacts
ECONOMIC
RACIAL
PRESERVATION
Upset Japan
Upset Britain
Upset Employers
Immigration Restriction Act 1901
The Pacific Island Labourers Act
- During the Depression of the 1890s, many Europeans lost their jobs and were replaced by cheaper imported workers
One important factor was the widespread belief White people were a superior race to other races.
Australians believed that the democratic structures only recently constructed were fragile and could be corrupted by immigrants
Dictation Test
Officially was to ensure immigrants had suitable education
Unofficially it was way of non-offensively refusing immigrants
Involved a customs officer dictating 50 word passage and the migrant would have to write it down. It could be in any European Language.
ANZAC LEGEND
Mateship
The idea that one never let and mate down, never let another mate take the fall, no matter how tough things were, is a central value of the ANZAC legend.
An Independent Spirit
Anzac Soldiers were known for their 'larrikin' sense of humour, and practical jokes.

They were also seen as being poorly disciplined by British officers. often disrespectful of authority and would 'admire the man, not the uniform'.
ANZACS didn't worry too much about class distinctions unlike their English counter parts. this fueled the idea of Australia as an egalitarian or class-less society.
Bravery
ANZACs were known for their courage, their willingness to keep going against the odds and their loyalty to each other.

They got the nickname 'shock troops' along the Western Front because of this.
Spirit of the Bushman
The idea that in the bush you help your neighbour and rely on him aided the sense of mateship.

Bushmen are resilient and resourceful. Making grenades out of tin cans is an example of ANZAC resourcefulness

Living in the bush is tough. You have to cope without complaint - this was taken to how ANZACs dealt with life in the trenches.
GROUP: Solider Settlement
EVENT: The Sydney Harbour Bridge
POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT: The Depression
INDIVIDUAL: Don Bradman
SIGNIFICANCE
Structure
National Pride
Function
Icon
EMPLOYMENT
CLASS TASK
1. Read the sources in the handout, and consider the points on significance. Mark next to each source the relevant point the source supports and highlight the powerful or interesting statements made.

2. In your books, create a table with the heading
'
Impacts of the Sydney Harbour Bridge'
Negative Postive


In the table, place all the impacts of the bridge, as mentioned in the sources.

3. Considering the timeline you created and the information your received today, write a TEDEL paragraph
explaining the significance of the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

Be prepared to share the paragraph with your neighbour and the class
OUTBREAK
Why did WWI Begin?
Where was it?
Europe and the Pacific
Changing Relationships
Australia and America
Prisoners of War
Kokoda
Civilians Under attack
Bombing of Darwin
Submarines in Sydney Harbour
The Home Front
Women
Enemy Alien
Gov Controls
Victory in Europe and the Pacific
WWI
Federation
'White Australia'
WWII
Living in Australia in 1900
Between the Wars
Donald Bradman
Sydney Harbour Bridge
ANZAC Legend
The Great Depression
Australian History
Arthur Streeton, Golden Summer, Eaglemont, 1889.

1. Who were the Kanakas?

2. What was the process of Blackbirding?
http://tenpoundpom.com/dictation.php
Social legislation
Conciliation and Arbitration courts established
Harvester Case
Pension
Baby Bonus
Aim: to settle disagreements between employers and trade unions (employees)
C&A courts made a decision that established the idea of the basic wage.
The 'Fair and reasonable wage for an unskilled man was $4.20 a week and was to cover a male worker who was expected to support a wife and 3 children.
For Australian Born or British citizens over 65. Many groups were excluded from this.
The story of simpson and his donkey, is a key example of this value
GALLIPOLI
Considering the narrative of Gallipoli
Create a Timeline outlining the key events. Make sure to include the following:
Pre April 25 1915
April 25 1915
26 April - May
May to July
August
Sept 1915 -Dec 1915
20 Dec 1915
1919

The soldiers of World War II knew that every day could be their last. Still, they kept fighting … and they kept dying. Inside World War II is the intimate story of the last global war, told by the survivors — those who endured the front line's bloody conflicts. Those who witnessed the brutality of combat give their unfiltered accounts. Included in the interviews are former prisoner of war and “Slaughterhouse-Five” author Kurt Vonnegut and the grandson of legendary general George S. Patton.
INSIDE WWII
This special History Channel show, WW2 From Space, fits into this box perfectly, as it retells how the war unfolded, but with one major different viewpoint, it does it mostly from a bird's eye view using CGI.

This spectacular two-hour special delivers the tipping points of World War II as you've never seen them before. The key editorial feature of the program is an all-seeing CGI eye; a satellite, flying above earth, bringing a new visual approach to the biggest conflict of all time.

Flying through space and time from above, we'll see these monumental moments in their global context, bringing new information to the forefront and explaining how a nation ranked 19th in the world's militaries in 1939, emerged six years later as the planet's only atomic superpower.
WORLD WAR II from Space
OVERSEXED, OVERPAID and OVER HERE
Almost 1 million American service personnel, including about 100,000 African-Americans, passed through Australia during World War II.
They were better paid and had access to more exotic consumer items in their military PXs (tax free stores) and many Australian women saw the well-paid Americans as desirable and romantic.
More than 12,000 Australian women became American war brides, most of whom returned to the US with their new husbands at the end of the war.
Australia’s security became a vital link in the future American offensive against Japan, providing a base from which they could fight the Pacific war
‘Battle of Brisbane’ which took place on 26 November 1942. Although this large-scale riot was essentially between Australian and US servicemen it was believed to have been started after provocation by the US military police of one of their own countrymen. The clash resulted in the death of one Australian soldier and serious injuries to several Australian and American soldiers.
DOCUMENTARY
Overview
KOKODA
Full transcript