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Transcript of Metal Mining
Ancient people used metals to manufacture early tools and weapons. HISTORY OF METAL MINING The oldest known mine on archaeological record is the "Lion Cave" in Swaziland, which radiocarbon dating shows to be about 43,000 years old The gold mines of Nubia were among the largest and most extensive of any in Ancient Egypt.
Fire-setting was one method used to break down the hard rock holding the gold. Mining in Europe has a very long history, it is the Romans who developed large scale mining methods. Mining as an industry underwent dramatic changes in medieval Europe. The mining industry in the early Middle Ages was mainly focused on the extraction of copper and iron. prospecting for ore bodies analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine extraction of the desired materials Modern mining processes finally reclamation of the land to prepare it for other uses once the mine is closed Modern Mining techniques can be divided into two common excavation types: surface mining and sub-surface (underground) mining Underground mining
soft rock/hard rock Underground hard rock mining refers to various underground mining techniques used to excavate hard minerals such as those containing metals like gold, copper, zinc, nickel and lead or gems such as diamonds. Metal Mining Metal mining is the extraction of valuable metals from the earth, from an orebody. Why metal minining is important
??? Metals are a class of chemical elements with very useful properties,such as strength, malleability, and conductivity of heat and electricity.
Most metals can be pressed into shapes or drawn into thin wire without breaking, and they can be melted or fused. Some metals have magnetic properties, while others are very good conductors of electricity. Considering that the Chinese civilization is very old, it has seen many rulers and forms of governments. Since ancient times, gold is associated with good luck and is considered to be the colour of emperors. Gold and silver, and sometimes other precious metals, are often seen as hedges against both inflation and economic downturn. Operations and waste products associated with metal extraction and processing are the principal causes of environmental concerns about metal mining, which may
•Physically disturb landscapes
•Increase the acidity of soils
•Degrade surface and groundwater quality
•Increase air-borne dust and other emissions Cultural Importance Economic use Environment Management and Administration Some former mining operations
• Reclaiming areas of physical disturbance to prevent erosion,
• Stabilizing soils containing metals or chemicals to prevent unwanted metal releases into the environment
• Preventing and/or treating water contamination
• Controlling air emissions An extensive regulatory system has been developed to govern current mining operations, as well as to guide the cleanup of historical ones. These laws outline the responsibilities of several Federal agencies, such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in regulating mining operations. Sustainability issues Amount of Percent of
Recycled Metal U.S. Supply
Iron & Steel 58,000,000 59 % *
Aluminum 3,500,000 39 %
Copper 1,500,000 37 %
Lead 1,145,000 66 %
Zinc 425,000 22 %
*Percent of U.S. production. Although recycling
is a significant source
of metals, mining and
production will still be
necessary to meet
demand. According to the U. S. Bureau of Mines, which completed a data
synthesis on U. S. metal recycling in 1990, the value of recycled metals
totaled $37 billion, or only $2 billion less than the value of newly mined
metal in that year. Recycling can be an alternative source of metals that reduces the
need for new metal mines. Conclusion Mining provides us with essential resources.
A better scientific understanding of the environmental impacts of mining, coupled with great advances in mining and environmental technologies, have enabled modern miners to better predict, plan for, and prevent or minimize potential adverse environmental impacts. by Milan and Jeff This map depicts the 7 metal mines that operated for any period during 2004 in BC.