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VERBALS

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Nancy Post

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of VERBALS

GERUNDS
A verbal that ends in -
ing
and works in a sentence like a
noun
.

A
gerund phrase
consists of a
gerund

+
a modifier(s)
,
object(s
), and/or
complement(s)
.


Gerunds
occupy places in a sentence that a noun would, for example:
subject
,
direct object
,
subject complement
, and
object of preposition
.

Punctuation:
A gerund virtually
never

requires any punctuation
with it.
A
Participle
is a verbal that is
used as an adjective
and
most often ends in -ing or -ed.

Because
Participles
work like adjectives,
participles modify nouns or pronouns.
There are
two types
of participles:
present participles
and
past participles
.

Present Participles

end in -ing
.
Past participles

end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, -n, or -ne
as in the words asked, eaten, saved, dealt, seen, and gone.

A
Participial Phrase
is a group of words consisting of a participle and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s),
indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action
or state expressed in the participle

Placement:
In order to prevent confusion, a participial
phrase must be placed as close to the noun it
modifies as possible, and the noun
must be clearly stated.


Infinitives
An
Infinitive
consists of the word
to
+
a verb
(in its simplest "stem" form)
and functions as a noun, adjective, or adverb.

Infinitives
work as a subject, direct object, subject complement, adjective, or adverb in a sentence.

Do not confuse an
infinitive
—a verbal consisting of to plus a verb—with a prepositional phrase beginning with to, which consists of to plus a noun or pronoun and any modifiers.

An
Infinitive Phrase
is a group of words consisting of an infinitive and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the actor(s), direct object(s),
indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action
or state expressed in the infinitive


Comparing Gerunds, Participles & Infinitives
GERUNDS, PARTICIPLES, & INFINITIVES
Revving Up
Your Writing with VERBALS

3 Categories of Verbals:
Gerunds, Participles & Infinitives

Verbals are based on a verb - so Gerunds, Participles & Infinitives express action or
a state of being.
Gerunds as a Subject
Writing

can help you express your inner thoughts.
Traveling

might satisfy your desire for new beginnings.
Reading
allows us to travel to faraway lands as we sit in our own chair.

(
Writing
,
Traveling
, and
Reading
are
gerunds
that work like the
subject
of the sentence.)
Gerunds as a Direct Object

The students did not enjoy my
singing
.
The guests loved his
cooking
.
The officer did not appreciate his
speeding,
even though it was an emergency!

Singing,

cooking,
and
speeding
are gerunds that work in the sentence as direct objects.
Gerund Phrase as a Subject
Wishing
upon a falling star is a popular superstition.
Wishing
(gerund used as a subject)
upon a falling star
(prepositional phrase)
is
(verb)

superstition
(predicate nominative)
Being
the boss is not always a fun job!
Being
(gerund)
Gerund Phrase as a Direct Object
Do you appreciate my
giving
you a day off from typing?
my
(possessive pronoun adjective form, modifying the gerund)
giving
(gerund)
you
(indirect object of action expressed in gerund)
a day off
(direct object of action expressed in gerund)
from typing
(prepositional phrase)
Gerunds as a
Subject Complement
My husband's favorite hobby is
fishing
.
(The gerund,
fishing
, complements
hobby.
)

My son's favorite activity is
eating
!
(The gerund
eating
, works as a complement to
activity
.)
Gerund Phrase as a Subject Complement
The student's favorite tactic has been

jabbering
away to his teacher to avoid work.

jabbering
away to (gerund)
his teacher
(direct object of action expressed in gerund)
Gerunds as an
Object of a Preposition
The police arrested him for
speeding
.
(
The gerund,
speeding
, is the object of the preposition, for.)

Do you appreciate my giving you a day off from
typing
?
(
The gerund,
typing
, is the object of the
preposition, from.)
Gerund Phrase as an
Object of a Preposition
You might get in trouble for
faking
an illness to avoid school.

faking
(gerund)
an illness
(direct object of action expressed in gerund)
to avoid school
(infinitive phrase as adverb)
Participles
Present Participles
People ran toward the
screaming
child.
(The participle,
screaming
, acts like an adjective modifying the noun, child.)
Sobbing
, she hugged her
dangling
doll as she looked for a familiar face.
(The participle,
sobbing
, describes the pronoun, she. The participle,
dangling
, describes the noun, doll.)
Present Participial Phrase
Removing

her coat
, Jade rushed to help the child stay warm.
Removing
(participle) her coat (direct object of action expressed in participle)
Dustin noticed a lady
walking

down the street
and
calling
out loudly.
Walking
(participle) down the street (prepositional phrase as an adverb) Calling (participle) loudly (adverb)

Past Participles
Past participles end in -ed, -en, -d, -t, -n, or -ne

Shaken
, the child ran toward her mother.
(
Shaken
describes
child
.)
A student
troubled
by hunger cannot focus on schoolwork.
(
Troubled
describes
student
.)
Having been
worn
, the pants were thrown in the laundry.
(
Worn
describes
pants
.)

Past Participlial Phrases
Children
interested

in music
develop strong intellectual skills.
(
Interested in music
describes
children
.)
Eaten

by mosquitoes
, we hurriedly ran back to the car.
(
Eaten by mosquitoes
describes
we
)
The water drained slowly in the pipe
clogged

with suet and hair
.
(
Clogged with suet and hair
describes
pipe.
)
Participle Punctuation
When a participial phrase begins a sentence, a comma
should be placed after the phrase.

Arriving
at the store, I found that it was closed.

If the participle comes in the middle of a sentence, set off with commas only if information is
not essential
to sentence meaning.

Sarah,
watching
an old movie, drifted in and out of sleep.

If the participial phrase is essential to meaning of the sentence, no commas should be used:

The guy
wearing
the cougar costume is my cousin.



If a participial phrase comes at the end of a sentence, a comma usually precedes the phrase if it modifies an earlier word in the sentence but not if the phrase directly follows the word it modifies

The local residents often saw the man
wandering

through the streets
.
(The phrase modifies man not residents.)

Ken nervously watched the woman,
alarmed

by her anger
.
(The phrase modifies Ken, not woman.)
More Participle
Punctuation
To wait
seemed foolish when decisive action was required.
(
To wait
= subject of sentence)

Everyone wanted
to go
.
(
to go
= direct object of the verb wanted)

His ambition is
to fly
.
(
to fly
= subject complement of ambition)

He lacked the strength
to resist
.
(
to resist
= adjective describing strength)

We must study
to learn
.
(
to learn
= adverb answering why study)

Infinitives in Sentences
Infinitive Phrases
An
Infinitive Phrase
is a group of words consisting of an
infinitive

+ the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s)
that
function as the actor(s), direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the infinitive
, such as:

We intended
to leave

early.
The
infinitive phrase functions as the
direct object of the verb
, intended
.
to leave (infinitive) early (adverb)

I have two papers
to write

before school tomorrow
.
The
infinitive phrase functions as an
adjective
modifying paper.
to write (infinitive) before school tomorrow (prepositional phrase as adverb)

Joe agreed
to give

me a ride
.
The
infinitive phrase functions as the
direct object of the verb
, agreed
.
to give (infinitive) me (indirect object of action expressed in infinitive)
a ride (direct object of action expressed in infinitive)
Infinitive Phrases & Actors
Actors: An "Actor" of an infinitive phrase could be thought of as the "subject" of the action or state expressed in the infinitive. Remember though, that an infinitive phrase is not a full clause with a subject and a finite verb.
When the actor is a pronoun, it appears in the objective case (me, not I).
Certain verbs that take an infinitive direct object, require an actor for the infinitive phrase; others can't have an actor.

They asked me
to bring

some food
.
Infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb
,
asked
.
me (actor or "subject" of infinitive phrase) to bring (infinitive)
some food (direct object of action expressed in infinitive)

Everyone wanted Sally
to be
the captain of the team
.
Infinitive phrase functions as the direct object of the verb
,
wanted.
Sue (actor or "subject" of infinitive phrase) to be (infinitive)
the captain (subject complement for Sue, via state of being expressed in infinitive) of the team (prepositional phrase as adjective)
In the first of each pair, a gerund (noun-function) is used;
in
the second, a participle (adjective-function).
Notice the subtle change in meaning between the two sentences in each pair.

The banjoist's
finger-picking
was extraordinary.
(The technique was extraordinary.)
The banjoist,
finger-picking
, was extraordinary.
(The person was extraordinary, demonstrating the technique.)

She was not impressed with their
arguing
.
(The arguing did not impress her.)
She was not impressed with them
arguing
.
(They did not impress her as they argued.)

Grandma enjoyed her grandchildren's running and laughing.
Grandma enjoyed her grandchildren, running and laughing.
* (Ambiguous: who is running and laughing?)
Comparing Gerunds & Participles
Comparing
Gerunds & Infinitives
Gerunds & Infinitives are formed differently. Confusion happens when one or the other functions as the direct object in a sentence. In English some verbs take gerunds as verbal direct objects exclusively while other verbs take only infinitives and still others can take either.

Because she was nervous, she hesitated
to speak
.
(not: Because she was nervous, she hesitated speaking.*)

They will attempt
to resuscitate
the victim
(not: They will attempt resuscitating the victim.*)

Mr. Allen enjoys
cooking
.
(not: Mr. Allen enjoys to cook.*)

Charles keeps
calling
her.
(not: Charles keeps to call her.*)
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