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Transcript of Terminal ballistics
LWAG 2011 Aveiro
27th Oct 2011 Terminal ballistics, a sub-field of ballistics, is the study of the behavior of a projectile when it hits its target. It is often referred to as stopping power when dealing with human or other living targets. Terminal ballistics is relevant both for small caliber projectiles as well as for large caliber projectiles (fired from artillery). The study of extremely high velocity impacts is still very new and is as yet mostly applied to spacecraft design. From Wikipedia Impact velocity Material strength Hydrostatic pressure Dynamic pressure 1000 m/s 3000 m/s Impact velocity Material Strength Dynamic Pressure Material strength Dynamic pressure Hydrodynamic penetration equation Bernouilli, Eichelberger Shaped charge Increase density Munroe, Neumann, Newman, Birkhoff, Held, Doig,... Increase jet length Jet partitioning Standoff distance Electromagnetic railgun
Hypervelocity penetrator Asymmetric layered structure Increase standoff Disturb shaped charge Disturb jet Explosive reactive armour (ERA) Non-explosive reactive armour M. Held Adapted hydrodynamic penetration equation Lanz & Odermatt (Tate, Alekseevski) (Allen & Rogers) (Hohler & Stilp) Long rod Increase density Increase velocity Increase L/D ratio Avoid yawing, buckling
& fragmentation DU vs Tungsten Depleted uranium (DU) Tungsten (W) Deceleration (external ballistics) Pyrophoricity Induce yaw angle Ricochet Heavy ERA Explosively formed penetrator (EFP) Optimum L/D Segmented rod Increase mass Increase velocity Avoid fragmentation and form a stable projectile Analytical models Recht & Ipson Forrestal Gabeaud Ben-Dor ... Small calibre ammunition Fragmentation Disturb projectile Semi-armour piercing Wounding effect Armour piercing Mott, Paymann, Gurney Klepaczko, Nesterenko, Meyers Absorb energy Disrupt projectile Spaced armour Ricochet Increase strength Increase sound velocity Increase hardness Dual roll bonding 5900 m/s