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5694: The Human Genome Project
Transcript of 5694: The Human Genome Project
clone-based shotgun sequencing
(in the fable, Collins would be the tortoise) the private project-
whole-genome shotgun sequencing
(in the fable, Venter would be the hare) Francis Collins Craig Venter want to know who won? Make a set of ordered clones and then sequence each of these
Advantage: already know how the major pieces fit together
Disadvantage: slow and expensive Fragment the genome and sequence all the pieces. Allign the pieces using bioinformatics.
Advantage: fast and inexpensive
Disadvantage: difficult to know where the repeat sequences fit. So the hare needed the tortoise
But the tortoise also benefited from the speed of the hare
For a big genome - a hybrid approach, combining aspects of both methods, is probably best
The race ended quite happily and the two projects shared data
A draft sequence was published in 2001 and a complete sequence in 2003 watch the movie it's really good! watch the movie it's really good! the private project- whole genome shotgun sequencing The public project - clone by clone shotgun sequencing what was discovered?
A lot. Perhaps most surprisingly we have only about 20,000 protein coding genes and these make up a tiny 1.5% of the genome. What's all the rest? Regulatory sequence, introns, transposons, simple sequences and other stuff! in 2012, the ENCODE project published a series of papers deciphering the genome
Encyclopedia of DNA Elements or the public project the private project just how important is it and what can it tell us? what's left to do? find out what all those DNA elements do-functional genomics (7th September 2012)