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Transcript of Autism
Awareness of sensitivity to noise and light.
Circle of Friends Social Interactions
Visual prompts and modelling
Language used by the teacher
Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Social Communication Imagination Visual timetable
Child's interest incorporated into lessons
Keep changes to a minimum
Key characteristics of Autism:
- Avoids eye contact
- Lack of desire to interact with others
- Unable to read other people's feelings and emotions.
- Seemingly oblivious to their surroundings
- No desire to communicate with others
- Unable to understand the process of a conversation
- Delayed speech
- May discuss topics incessantly
- Play is unimaginative
- Obsessive behaviours
- Cannot cope with changes to routines
Communication Imagination Use documents such as the National Curriculum and the SEN Code of Practice to inform teaching.
A good understanding of the condition.
'"Good practice" should involve professional judgement and the capacity to adjust the programme to meet the changing needs of the child.' (Jordan and Powell, 2011:15).
Realistic targets and high expectations
Many strategies used will not only benefit children with a Special Educational Need but all the children in the class. Teaching and Learning strategies 'No two children with Autism will present the same characteristics to the same degree.' (Wall, 2004:8). What are the causes of Autism? Currently, there is no definitive cause of Autism but there are triggers that may have an effect e.g. biological, pregnancy, neurochemical.
"Genetic factors and problems with brain development are, however, believed to be closely linked." (Wall, 2004:15). What is Autism? The Autistic Spectrum Leo Kanner (1943) defined the condition of Autism. Any condition on the Autistic Spectrum is known as an Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
Autism is a developmental disability on The Autistic Spectrum that has a lifelong impact on the individual. Studied 11 children.
Recognised particular behaviours that the children displayed that differed from perceived "normal" behaviour.
Identified characteristics and ultimately used these to define the term Autism. All children with Autism have difficulties in the three areas of the Triad of Impairments. Identification Unusual sensory processing e.g. Overpowering smells and sounds, reactions to strong light and particular food textures.
Unusual sleeping patterns.
Possible exceptional skills in areas such as art, knowledge of a film, music and maths. Other Characteristics
Diagnosed by a paediatrician or child psychiatrist.
The child's behaviour is observed and recorded.
'It is only when a person is at an abnormal level along each of the three dimensions of the triad that they can be considered as having an ASD.' (Jordan, 2002:11).
Impairments must be present before the child reaches three years of age. 'You will need to consider both how you teach and the range of teaching strategies available to you, at the same time questioning how individual pupils learn best.' (Rose, 2007:36). Background Effective classroom
practice Conclusion Conclusion Having explored Autism, its background and methods to support children with Autism, it is clear that there are various strategies a teacher can employ to ensure that the classroom is inclusive. Some strategies we have discussed will be useful for all children in the classroom whereas others will mainly benefit a child with Autism.
It is important that the teacher views the child as an individual and does not label them with the term "Autism" and expect them to behave in a certain way, as there are many variances on how children with Autism will behave as with any other child.
By employing the strategies discussed and being aware of the implications of Autism, a teacher can help to ensure a child with Autism could achieve their potential in mainstream education. References Cumine, V. et al. (2010) Autism in the Early Years (2nd Edition) Oxon: Routledge
Department for Education (2009) Inclusion Development Programme Primary and Secondary. Nottingham: DSCF Publications.
Early Support Programme (2006) Information for Parents: Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) and related conditions. Nottingham: DSCF Publications
Frederickson, N., & Cline, T. (2009). Special Educational Needs, Inclusion and Diversity. Berkshire: Open University Press.
Glazzard, J., Hughes, A., Netherwood, A., Neve, L., & Stokoe, J. (2010). Teaching Primary Special Educational Needs. Exeter: Learning Matters.
Grandin, T. (1996). Thinking in Pictures: And Other Reports from My Life with Autism. London: Vintage.
Humphrey, N., (2008), ‘Including pupils with autistic spectrum disorders in mainstream schools’, Support for Learning, 23,no 1: 41-47
Jordan, R. (2002) Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Early Years. Stafford: QEd Publications.
Matson, J. (2009). Applied Behaviour Analysis for Children with Autisim Spectrum Disorders. New York: Springer.
Powell, S. and Jordan, R. (Eds.) (2011) Autism and Learning. London: Routledge
Rose, R., & Howley, M. (2007), The practical guide to special education needs in inclusive primary classrooms, London: Paul Chapman.
The National Autistic Society, (2011), Gender and Autism [online]. The National Autistic Society. Available: http://www.autism.org.uk/about-autism/autism-and-asperger-syndrome-an-introduction/gender-and-autism.aspx [Accessed 2nd January 2013].
Wall, K. (2004) Autism and Early Years Practice. London: Paul Chapman Publishing. Social stories (Glazzard et al., 2010) (Glazzard et al., 2010) (Matson, 2009) (Frederickson & Cline, 2009) (Glazzard et al., 2010) Statistically more males than females are affected by Autism. (The National Autistic Society, 2011)