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Copy of Absolutism

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Cullen Robertson

on 20 March 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Absolutism

1550 - 1800 Absolutism Birth of a New World Thirty Years War England Russia European Culture Exploration and expansionism brings Spain, England, Portugal and France into conflict. Tudors
Limited Monarchy Ivan IV - Czar
Ivan the Terrible
Territorial expansion
Defeat of boyars Religious and political conflicts are reflected in new styles of art, literature, and thought
Baroque art and mannerism reflect religious tension and spirtuality of religious revival
Literature reflects the human condition of the time
English revolutions contribute to responses from two famous English thinkers Motives Behind
European Exploration
and Expansion God Glory Gold Protestant vs. Catholics

Christians vs. Muslims Explorer vs. Explorer

Country vs. Country Treaty of Tordesillas Country vs. Country Mercantilism Europe 1300 - 1600 Italian Renaissance begins 1350 1518 Martin Luther presents his
"Ninety-Five Theses" Spanish ship carries first
African slaves to the Americas 1517 Ferdinand Magellan sails into
the Pacific Ocean 1520 King Henry the VIII initiates
the creation of the
Church of England 1534 Francisco Pizarro conquers
the Inca Empire 1535 What is the impact? Calvinism vs. Catholicism 1. Religious differences 2. Spanish desire for power
English desire for balance 3. Francis Drake
Spanish What is the impact? What is the impact? England vs. Spain Spain: 1550 - 1700 Monarchs get powerful
Build royal army to replace nobles' armies
Take new lands and expand government Philip II Religious and untrusting Develops into "absolute monarch" "Absolute monarch: ruler with total control over government and lives of citizens Decline of Nobles' Power Feudalism ---> mercantilism Expansion Leaders in exploration and expansion in the New World
Growing gold wealth France Spain's Decline Philip's Spanish armada is defeated by Queen Elizabeth
Leadership weak following Philip
"Reconquest" drove out Muslim and Jews
artisans, brilliant thinkers The Defeat of the
Spanish Armada King Philip attempts to invade England
Reconvert England
Queen Elizabeth anticipates attack
Spain: 130 ships with 3,000 cannons
Sir Francis Drake and his smaller ships
1588 Inflation Expansion, exploration, and battles with England are expensive
Spanish economy depended on silver
Silver mines produce less
Influx of gold French Religious Wars
Edict of Nantes
King Louis XIV 1560s - 1590s
French Religious Wars Calvinists (Huguenots) vs. Catholics
Huguenots - English, Dutch, German
Catholics - Philip II Monarchs vs. nobility
St. Bartholomew's Day - August 24, 1572
3,000 Huguenots
many thousand more killed Edict of Nantes Henry Navarre --> Huguenot
Henry IV --> Catholic
Grants rights to Huguenots King Louis XIV Spain's Golden Age 1550 - 1650 considered the "Golden Century"
Spanish artists, philosophers, and writers
centered on religion
(except Cervantes - Don Quixote
Philip II and Habsburgs patrons of arts Nephew of Charles V Diego Velazquez
"Las Meninas" The Hapsburgs Austrian royal family
Begins in Spain with the birth of Charles - future Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Obtain Portugal after their defeat by Muslims during the War of the Three Kings
Large over extended empire
Power constantly challenged
Inbreeding Charles II The House of Guise Roman Catholic
Francis II
Mary Queen of Scots
Amboise Conspiracy
Persecution of Huguenots Francis II Marries Mary Stuart Queen of Scots
used by Guise family
break Huguenot strength Conspiracy of Amboise Huguenots vs. House of Guise
House of Bourbon rumored to support Huguenots
Failed coup House of Bourbon de Medici family
Bourbon - Guise - Montmorency
Henry IV 1589-1610
converts to Catholicism to avoid trouble
Inherits France at time of turmoil
Greatly reduces debt King Louis XIII Henry IV assassinated by fanatic
Only 8 - de Medici family
Cardinal Richelieu 1624-1642
France above religion
Extends royal power
Edict of 1626
Destroy any feudal castles Great grandson of King Philip II
Sun King; rules 1643-1715
4 when given the throne
Anne of Austria - regent
Chooses Sun to show belief in divine right
France = Center of Europe
Louis = Center of France
Announces his own rule - 23 y/o Changes in Government Assigned himself as Chief Minister
Expands bureaucracy
Does not assign family, princes, etc. to positions Revokes the Edict of Nantes
Decline in monarchy
100,000 Huguenots flee Grandeur Sun God - Apollo was known as the god of peace and art
Palace of Versailles
Leaders in culture
Patron of art and literature Decline of Louis XIV Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
drove out Huguenots
allied Protestants
Philip V gains Spain
Spain and France as one
England declares war
Expenses Tudors 1485 - 1603
Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603)
Inherits from Mary
Act of Supremacy
Catholics - Protestants equal
Balance power among Europe
Altercations with Spain and France
No direct heir Stuarts James I
Elizabeth's cousin
King of Scotland
Divine right of Kings
Charles I
Petition of Right
Civil War Civil War 1642
Cavaliers vs. Roundheads
New Model Army
Oliver Cromwell
Charles I executed
England --> Commonwealth Oliver Cromwell Member of Parliament
New Model Army
Lord Protector of England, Ireland, and Scotland
Destroyed role of Parliament and King
Military Dictatorship
Dies 1658 Restoration Charles II returns
Invited back to England from exile
Religious understanding
Family Catholic Creation of a
Limited Monarchy James II
English Bill of Rights
Parliament superior over Monarch
make laws, levy taxes
Parliament must consent to standing army being raised
Habeas Corpus reconfirmed
Limited Monarchy
Bill creates government based on rule of law (due process) and freely elected Parliament Holy Roman Empire
Catholic vs. Calvinist
Austria vs. Bohemia
France, Spain, Denmark, Sweden
Peace of Westphalia
300 independent states Prussia Frederick William the Great Elector
Large, standing army
4th largest in Europe
General War Commisariat
government agency
managed by land-holding aristocracy
officers in the army Austrian Empire Hapsburgs
lost chance at German empire
Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary
too many ethnic groups Peter the Great Romanov dynasty
absolute monarch
"Europeanize" Russia
Cultural evolution
first Russian book of etiquette
men shave beards, short coats
women remove veils
Military changes
reorganize army
drafted peasants
25 year service
210,000 soldiers
First Russian navy
Government changes
two provinces
"police state": a well-ordered community governed by law Art Mannerism: deliberately broke down Renaissance principles of balance, harmony, and moderation; rules of proportion deliberately ignored and used to show emotion and feeling
Baroque: united classic ideals of Renaissance art and spiritual feelings from the religious revival; reflected a search for power Literature Dramas and comedies reflect human conditions of the time
Power of love
Cruelty of prejudice
Consequences of conflicts
England and Spain reach heights in theater writing 1580 - 1640 William Shakespeare Globe theater
English culture, events
Early plays: histories and comedies
Henry V, A Midsummer's Night Dream
reflect results of a weak or corrupt leader
justification of the Tudors
tricks of disguise
mistaken identities
Later works: tragedies and tragicomedies
Hamlet, Othello, The Tempest
discussion of human emotion and temperment
betrayal, retribution, incest, moral failure Cervantes and Vega Miguel de Cervantes
Don Quixote
discussion of human condition
dreams vs. reality
Lope de Vega
playwright Political Thought
and Philosophy English Revolutions of 17th Century
concerns with order
How much power is too much? Thomas Hobbes "Leviathan" - 1651
Before the organization of society, human life was "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short"
Absolute power is needed to maintain social order John Locke "Two Treatises of Government" - 1679/1680
Not published until 1690
Before society was organized, humans lived in a state of equality and freedom
All humans had certain natural rights they were born with
Role of government is to ensure the protection of these rights and judge those who violate them
Full transcript