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Pharmaceutical Formulation

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charlotte moore

on 13 April 2013

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Transcript of Pharmaceutical Formulation

A formulated product, consisting of a biologically active drug and a number of functionally inactive but important excipients What is a medicine ? WHAT IS EXTEMPORANEOUS DISPENSING? The practice of preparing medicines for a patient immediately before the patient requests them
may be:
liquid or oral delivery
ointments
creams
suppositories (less so) RELEVANCE! Think Pharmacy You may be called upon to make a product in during your future career as a pharmacist.
This is less common in community pharmacy but much more common if you want to go into hospital pharmacy USING LAB EQUIPMENT Some of the equipment you will be using are specifically for pharmaceutical use Balances Pharmaceutical measures ''Ordinary Glassware'' Pestles and mortars LIQUIDS BACKGROUND - ORAL SOLUTIONS Usually solutions, emulsions or suspensions containing one or more active ingredient in a suitable vehicle.

Intended to be swallowed either diluted or undiluted

Maybe prepared from concentrated liquid preparations, or from powders, granules or tablets

May contain suitable antimicrobial preservatives, antioxidants and other excipients such as dispersing, suspending, thickening, emulsifying, buffering, wetting, solubilising, stabilising, flavouring and sweetening agents and colouring matter

Emulsions may show evidence of phase separation but are easily reformed on shaking

Suspensions may show a sediment which is readily dispersed on shaking to give a suspension which remains sufficiently stable to enable the correct dose to be delivered

Liquids for oral delivery are supplied in multi dose or single dose containers. they are administered either in volumes such as 5 mL or multiples of 5 or in a small volume (drops) each dose of a multi dose preparation is administered by means of a device suitable for measuring the prescribed volume. THINK! Why would these excipients be important? TYPES OF ORAL LIQUIDS Oral solutions Aqueous solutions (usual)
Non aqueous solutions (not usual)
Aqueous "sugar free" solutions Oral suspensions Aqueous suspensions (usual) Oral emulsions Oral drops Small volume oral liquids Elixirs Solutions, usually containing a high portion of sucrose Mixtures General term meaning solutions, suspensions or emulsions Linctuses Viscous solutions, usually containing a high portion of sucrose THINK! In what situation would each of these be most appropriate ? Containers DISPENSING LABEL
(affixed to convex face of bottle ) SMOOTH AMBER GLASS MEDICINE BOTTLE CHILD RESISTANT CAP STABILITY AND EXPIRY DATES An official BP or BPC will have a defined shelf life This is conveyed by the phrases "recently prepared" and "freshly prepared" in the monograph "Freshly prepared" These products must have been prepared not more than 24 hours before issue to the patient and has a total shelf life of 2 weeks "Recently prepared" These products must have been prepared not more than 2 weeks before issue to the patient and has a total shelf life of 4 weeks Spoons and Syringes Most oral liquids are prescribed in multiples of 5 mL when dispensing an oral liquid with such a dose, you should give the patient a standard 5 mL spoon.
There is only one graduation on a 5 mL spoon therefore it is not possible to take half a spoonful Spoons Syringes The dose for children may be < 5 mL. In this case an oral syringe is given to the parent/ carer when dispensing the medicine.
The capacity of the oral syringe is 5mL and it is graduated every 0.5 mL. Labeling All oral liquids should be labeled with:
"SHAKE THE BOTTLE"
This ensure that each dose is representative of the whole product THINK! What would happen if the patient took the medicine without shaking it first? TOPICAL APPLICATIONS BACKGROUND Definition Intended to be applied to the skin or to a certain mucous surfaces for local action or percutaneous penetration of active ingredients or for their emollient or protective action.

Homogeneous appearance

Consist of a simple or compound basis in which usually, one or more active ingredients are dissolved or dispersed

According to the composition, the basis may influence the action of the preparation and the release of the active ingredients

Bases may consist of natural or synthetic substances and may have hydrophilic or hydrophobic (lipophlic) properties, it may contain suitable additives such as antimicrobial preservatives, antioxidants, stabilisers, emulsifyers and thickeners

Preparations intended for use on large open wounds or on severly injured skin are STERILE THINK! Why would these excipients be important? TYPES OF ORAL LIQUIDS Gels Ointments Pastes Creams THINK! In what situation would each of these be most appropriate ? Containers STABILITY AND EXPIRY DATES An official BP or BPC will have a defined shelf life This is conveyed by the phrases "recently prepared" and "freshly prepared" in the monograph "Freshly prepared" These products must have been prepared not more than 24 hours before issue to the patient and has a total shelf life of 2 weeks "Recently prepared" These products must have been prepared not more than 2 weeks before issue to the patient and has a total shelf life of 4 weeks Dilution of Proprietary Products Labeling Sealed ointment tube Wide amber glass ointment jar For non official products, some stability testing should be conducted to assign a shelf life "FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY" In some instances you may be asked to dilute a proprietary topical semi solid preparation
E.g. For a child
Due to the different formulation strategies involved in producing these products YOU MUST BE VERY CAREFUL to to use the correct diluent, so as to avoid introducing incompatibilities into your diluent product.

The NPA produces a leaflet which describes the allowable diluent for a range of proprietary preparations and the shelf life of the diluted product, using information obtained from the manufacture PASTES DESCRIPTION Intended to be applied to small, localised areas of the skin

They are usually much thicker than ointments and tend to contain as much as 50% w/w solid material (ointments contain less than 10% w/w solid) FORMULATION The same formulation considerations apply to pastes as to ointments
Pastes are prepared in the same way as ointments Use in formulation 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Amount Ingredient Drug White Soft Paraffin BP Drug Hydrophobic base of 5 (about 50g) to 100g The drug would be incorporated into the ointment base using the tile method Use in formulation 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr Amount Ingredient Zinc Oxide BP Starch BP Drug 25g White Soft Paraffin BP Hydrophobic base Drug 25g 50g The full formulation has been given in the BP Example of pastes no.1 5+7= (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr You would have to develop the formulation yourself using your own knowledge Example of pastes no.2 Zinc Oxide BP Dithranol Paste BP Dithranol Paste BP contains Dithranol BP in a suitable hydrophobic basis containing 24% w/w each of zinc oxide BP and starch BP and 2% w/w of salicylic acid BP Description Gels consist of liquids gelled by means of suitable gelling agents

They look like viscous solutions and therefore the drug MUST be soluble in the gel base Types of Gels Hydrophobic (oleogels) Preparations whose basis usually consist of liquid paraffin with polyethylene or fatty oils gelled with colloidal silica or aluminum or zinc soaps Hydrophobic gels are water- immiscible and hence tend to have occlusive properties when used on the skin
the chemical compatibility issues between drugs and hydrophobic gel bases are due to the presence of SOAPS HANDY HINT Always check that the drug will be compatible with the base Hydrophilic Gels (Hydrogels) Preparations whose bases usually consist of water.
Glycol or propylene glycol gelled with suitable gelling agents such as tragacanth, starch, cellulose derivatives , carboxyvinyl polymers and magnesium-aluminium silicates Formulation and preparation of gels The water phase of a hydrogel needs to contain a preservative
The water phase MUST be purified water BP, freshly boiled and cooled to ensure a minimum of microorganisms
The selection of the gel base, ie/ oleogel or hydrogel is dependent on the solubility of the drug, as the drug MUST be soluble in the gel base.
Once the gel base, preservative and colourant (if used) have been selected, the gel is prepared as follows

1. Dissolve the drug and other soluble materials in the liquid gel base
2. Add the gelling agent
3. Stir ensuring that no air bubbles are generated
3. Leave the system to stand until the gelling action has taken place Hydrophilic gels are water- miscible and hence tend to be used when absorption into the skin is required
the compatibility issues between drugs and hydrophobic gel bases are due to the presence of the WATER and the MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM SILICATES HANDY HINT Always check that the drug will be compatible with the base CREAMS Description Formulated to provide preparations that are essentially miscible with the skin secretions
Intended to be applied to the skin or certain mucous membranes for protective, therapeutic or prophylactic purposes especially where an occlusive effects is NOT necessary
Creams are multiphase preparations consisting of a lipophilic phase and an aqueous phase Types of creams Hydrophobic Creams The continuous phase = lipophilic phase


They contain water-in-oil emulsifying agents such as wool fat, sorbitan esters and mono-glycerides


also known as ''water-in-oil'' creams (w/o)
in this case water is the smallest phase and oil is the larger phase
the dispersion is stabilised by the emulsifying agent, in this case its non-ionic W/O creams are most often used as barrier creams, with incorporated drugs (in either aqueous or lipophilic phase) Hydrophilic Creams O/W creams are most often used when the cream needs to be absorbed into the skin. The incorporated drugs are generally in the aqueous phase The continuous phase = aqueous phase


They contain oil-in-water emulsifying agents such as sodium or triethanolamine soaps, sulphated fatty alcohols and polysorbates, combined, if necessary with water-in-oil emulsifying agents


also known as ''oil-in-water'' creams (o/w)
in this case oil is the smallest phase and water is the larger phase
the dispersion is stabilised by the emulsifying agent, in this case its non-ionic Imagine: the cream as water droplets surrounded by oil Imagine: the cream as non oil droplets surrounded by water GELS pass through the skin FORMULATION OF CREAMS PHYSICAL PHARMACY
PHYSICAL PHARMACY physical pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmcay Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical physical pharmacy PHYSICAL PHYSICAL PHARMAY physical pharmacy physical pharmacy PHYSICAL PHARMACY physical pharmacy Physical Pharmacy PhYsIcAl PhArMaCy PhYsIcAl PhArMaCy PHYSICAL PHARMACY Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy physical pharmacy PHYSICAL PHARMACY
PHYSICAL PHARMACY PHYSICAL PHARMACY physical pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy
Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmcay Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy
Phsycial Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physcial Pharmacy What will you be making and what are they used for BACKGROUND - TOPICAL APPLICATIONS Definition Liquid preparations of varying viscosity intended to be applied to the skin or nails in order to obtain a local effect.

They are solutions, emulsions or suspensions which may contain one or more active ingredients in a suitable vehicle.

May contain suitable antimicrobial preservatives, antioxidants and other excipients such as stabilisers, emulsifiers and thickness.

Emulsions may show evidence of phase separation but are easily reformed on shaking.

Suspensions may show a sediment which is readily dispersed on shaking to give a suspension which remains sufficiently stable to enable a homogenous preparation to be delivered.

Preparations specifically intended for use on severely injured skin are sterile. THINK! Why would these excipients be important? TYPES OF LIQUIDS Oral solutions Aqueous solutions (usual)
Non aqueous solutions (not usual)
Aqueous "sugar free" solutions Lotions Aqueous solution
Aqueous suspension
Large volume
To be applied without friction Applications Nail Solutions Aqueous solution
Non aqueous solution
Small volume
To be applied to the nails Paints Aqueous solutions
Aqueous suspensions
Small volume
Form a flexible film at the site of application Colloions ethanolic solutions
Small volume
Form a flexible film at the site application Liniments Emulsion
Large volume
To be applied with friction THINK! In what situation would each of these be most appropriate ? Containers DISPENSING LABEL
(affixed to convex face of bottle ) RIBBED AMBER GLASS MEDICINE BOTTLE CHILD RESISTANT CAP STABILITY AND EXPIRY DATES Labeling All oral liquids should be labeled with:
"SHAKE THE BOTTLE"
This ensure that each dose is representative of the whole product
It should also include: THINK! What would happen if the patient took the medicine without shaking it first? Magnesium Trisilicate Magnesium Trisilicate is used as an antacid.
It neutralizes excess acid in the stomach and relieves symptoms of heartburn and dyspepsia.
Active ingredients are light magnesium carbonate, and Magnesium Trisilicate. Sodium bicarbonate also plays an important role as an acid regulator. RELEVANCE! Think
Pharmacy! Sodium Bicarbonate is also used in Gaviscon to relieve symptoms and heartburn.
Can you think of any side effects a patient may experience from taking antacid such as Gaviscon or Magnesium Trisilicate? Pediatric Ferrous Sulphate Solution Pediatric ferrous sulphate solution is used as an iron supplement for preventing and treating iron deficiency in children.
The active ingredient is ferrous sulphate (the source of the iron) RELEVANCE! Think
Pharmacy! Can you think why pharmacists tend not to make solutions like this in practice any more? Is any particular ingredient dangerous?
What side effects do you think a patient may get from taking an iron supplement? Calamine Lotion Calamine Lotion is used to relieve itching and soothe minor skin irritation or sun burnt skin.
Its active ingredients are calamine and zinc oxide.
After application to the skin the calamine evaporates which produces a cooling effect and relieves the itching symptoms and soothes sun burnt skin.
Zinc oxide has antiseptic properties which will help prevent infection from scratching. RELEVANCE! Think
Pharmacy! Can you think of any counseling points you would give your patient on applying calamine lotion? More details on oral solutions are in your lab book. E.g. Ferrous sulphate solution E.g. Magnesium Tricilicate Aqueous Suspensions Magnesium Trisilicate is an aqueous suspension
Based on water
Drug is suspended in water
Suspending agent may be required depending on whether the drug is diffusible (does not require one) or indiffusible (Does requires one)
Not clear
Should be even in appearance (drug evenly dispersed)
No lumps
Needs a preservative
May be coloured or flavoured General Method for Aqueous Suspensions. Calibrate a 100mL medicine bottle with purified water BP.
Place your drug in a glazed mortar.
Make a smooth paste with a small amount of chloroform water double strength BP (~5mL) ensuring no lumps.
Add further aliquots of chloroform water double strength BP and mix in well until the paste is sufficiently diluted to be pourable. Check for lumps
Transfer the diluted paste to the 100mL medicine bottle through a funnel.
Using the remaining double strength chloroform water BP and some of the purified water BP if necessary rinse around the mortar and transfer the rinsings to the medicine bottle.
Add the flavouring
Make up to volume with Purified water BP
Shake well. Magnesium Tricilicate BP
Light Magnesium Carbonate BP
Sodium Bicarbonate BP
Concentrated Peppermint emulsion BP
Chloroform Water Double Strength BP
Purified Water BP Drug
Drug
Alkalinity Regulator
Flavouring
Preservative
Vehicle 5g
5g
5g
2.5 mL
50 mL
to 100 mL Ingredients Use Amount You must use this formulation to be able to call your solution ''magnesium Tricilicate solution BP'' Aqueous Suspensions Pediatric Ferrous Sulphate solution is an aqueous solution
Based on water
clear in appearance
Needs a preservative
May be coloured or flavoured General Method for Aqueous Solutions. Dissolve drug in ~10mL water in a v shaped measure
Add flavouring and stir
Add the Double strength chloroform water BP, and stir
Make up to volume (100mL) with purified water BP and stir
Transfer to a 100mL amber medicine bottle , cap and label Ferrous Sulphate BP
Ascorbic acid BP
Orange Syrup BP
Chloroform Water Double Strength BP
Purified Water BP Drug
Anti-oxidant
Flavouring
Preservative
Vehicle 1.2g
0.2g
10mL
50 mL
to 100 mL Ingredients Use Amount You must use this formulation to be able to call your solution pediatric Ferrous sulphate oral solution BP'' Aqueous Suspensions Calamine lotion is an aqueous suspension
Based on water
Drug is suspended in water
Suspending agent may be required depending on whether the drug is diffusible (does not require one) or indiffusible ( does require one)
Not clear
Should be even in appearance (drug evenly dispersed)
No lumps
Needs a preservative
May be coloured or flavoured General Method for Aqueous Suspensions. Calibrate a 100mL medicine bottle with purified water BP.
Place your drug in a glazed mortar.
Make a smooth paste with a small amount of chloroform water double strength BP (~5mL) ensuring no lumps.
Add further aliquots of chloroform water double strength BP and mix in well until the paste is sufficiently diluted to be pourable. Check for lumps
Transfer the diluted paste to the 100mL medicine bottle through a funnel.
Using the remaining double strength chloroform water BP and some of the purified water BP if necessary rinse around the mortar and transfer the rinsing to the medicine bottle.
Add the flavouring
Make up to volume with Purified water BP
Shake well. Aqueous solution
Non aqueous solution
Aqueous suspension
Emulsion
Large Volume You will be making calamine lotion in your labs A ribbed bottle is used used to allow patients with impaired sight to be able to differentiate between oral liquids and those used for oral application "FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY'' Vehicles Preservatives Flavours Colours Suspending agents Required for suspensions, but not for aqueous solutions or syrups
E.g.1 Tragacanth BP (creamy coloured powder)
E.g.2 Compound Tragacanth Powder BP
15% w/w Tragacanth powder BP, 15% w/w Acacia BP, 15% w/w Starch BP and 45% w/w sucrose BP
Less suspending efficacy than Tragacanth BP. Amaranth solution (bright red colour) is the only colouring usually used in the UK E.g.1 Flavoured syrups (orange syrup)
they are syrup BP with a dash of flavour
best used in syrup based formulations (elixirs and linctuses)
used at 10-20% of the total of the product
can be used in aqueous solutions (not in sugar free)
E.g.2 Concentrated flavourings
hydroalcoholic concentrations (concentrated cinnamon water BP)
Best used in aqueous suspensions but can also be used in aqueous solutions and sugar free solutions Bulk of formulation
Used to make up to the correct volume after drug and excipients have been added
E.g.1 Water (Purified water BP most commonly used)
E.g.2 Ethanol
not generally desirable due to possible interactions of alcohol with drugs
Ethanol BP or 96% ethanol BP used
E.g.3 Syrup
used particularly in children's preparations, linctuses and elixirs All oral liquids need a preservative
E.g.1 Chloroform
commonly used in aqueous solutions, aqueous sugar free solutions and aqueous suspensions
Important you know the difference between the different chloroform products.
Chloroform water BP = 0.25% v/v chloroform in water
Chloroform water double strength BP = 0.5% v/v chloroform in water
Chloroform spirit BP = 5% v/v chloroform in ethanol
Concentrated chloroform water = 10% v/v chloroform and 55% v/v ethanol in water.
E.g.2 sucrose
Syrup consists of 67% w/v sucrose in water and considered self preserving. General info for formulation of all oral solutions WATER In creams purified water, freshly boiled (10 mins) and cooled is used. PRESERVATIVES The aqueous phase of all creams needs a preservative
E.g. Phenoxyethanol 1.0 % w/v
E.g.2 Chlocresol 0.1 % w/v
E.g.3 Chlorbutanol 0.1 % w/v
These must be added to the aqueous phase during manufacture. W/O Creams For a w/o cream a w/o emulsifying agent is required such as sorbitan mono-oleate
Beeswax barrier cream is a w/o cream O/W Creams Non-ionic emulsifying agents
The most common non ionic emulsifying agent is cetomacrogol
There are no ionisable groups in cetomacrogel, therefore it will not dissociate or ionise in solution. Selection of 0/W Cream bases The most important this is to ensure electrical compatibility between the emulsifying agent and the drug.
You must know the chemical structure of the emulsifying agent and the drug.
Anionic emulsifying agents are compatible with anionic and non-ionic drugs but incompatible with cationic drugs
Cationic emulsifying agents are compatible with cationic and non ionic drugs but incompatible with anionic drugs
Non ionic emulsifying agents are compatible with anionic, cationic and non ionic drugs. Preparation of Creams Fusion Method In the fusion method of preparing creams, the oily and aqueous phases are heating separately to the same temperature and then combined
Stirring the two phases together allows emulsification to occur
the resultant cream is allowed to cool.
the final cream should be smooth and glossy in appearance.
The fusion method is used for creams which do not contain drugs e.g. aqueous cream BP Tile Method Small quantities (up to 100g) of drug containing creams are prepared using the tile method.
Insoluble materials are incorportated into the cream base on an ointment tile little by little.
Before incorporation, the drug is rubbed down to remove lumps and ensure the final product is non gritty.
With care, small quantities of liquid materials can also be incorporated in this fashion. General Points Anionic and non ionic creams will generally consist of ~30% oily components and almost 70% aqueous components
Cationic creams will generally consist of about 50% oily components and 50% aqueous components
This is important in determining how to add the drug, ie. in aqueous solution manufacture of the cream base or on a tile
Always make an excess of cream at every stage manufacture, as its not possible to scrape 100% of the final product from an evaporating dish from a tile. Calamine Ointment Calamine ointment is used to relieve itching and soothe minor skin irritations
after application to the skin the calamine evaporates, which produces a cooling effect which helps soothe the itch and relieve the pain of sun burnt skin
Active ingredient is calamine RELEVANCE! Think
Pharmacy! What counseling points would you give your patient on how often to apply a moisturizer. RELEVANCE! Think
Pharmacy! Can you think of any counseling points you would give your patients on applying calamine ointment Aqueous Cream Aqueous cream is used as a soap substitute for dry skin (allowing it to cleanse the skin while preventing the skin drying
Active ingredients, emulsifying ointment which acts as a moisturizer and phenoxyethanol which is an antimicrobial preservative RELEVANCE! Think
Pharmacy! What counseling points would you give your patient on side effects and application of aqueous cream. Beeswax Barrier Cream Used as a moisturizer for dry skin it works by providing a layer of oil on the surface of the skin that prevents water evaporating from the skin
It relieves the symptoms of dry skin conditions such as eczema Method Melt the emulsifying ointment BP in an evaporating dish and heat to approximately 60 degree C
Boil the purified water BP and cool to 60 degree C. Add the phenoxyethanol Bp to about 30g of the water
Mix together the aqueous and oily phases, stirring well
Remove from heat and allow to cool, stirring well continuously
Adjust to exactly 50g with purified water. Method The drug would be incorporated into the ointment base using the tile method. Method Place the white beeswax BP, White soft paraffin BP, liquid paraffin BP and sorbitan mono-oleate BP in an evaporating dish and heat to ~60 degree C
Stir well
Boil the purified water BP and cool to ~60 degree C. Add the chlorocresol BP to about 18g of the water.
Mix together the aqueous and oily phases , stirring well.
Remove from heat and allow to cool, Stirring well continuously.
Adjust to exactly 50g with purified water BP, freshly boiled and cooled, stir well. 4- Figure Used for weighing smaller quantities when a more accurate reading in needed e.g. when measuring the active ingredient. 2- Figure Used for weighing larger quantities e.g when weighing a container or when weighing white soft paraffin V-shaped with a curved inner base and wide top
These are used rather than volumetric flasks because of the greater ease of removal of the product. Can not be used for accurate measurements, only rough measurements. A square flat piece of glass, which is used to make ointments, creams and suppositories Mortar = used for mixing materials
Pestle = does the mixing
you will be using glazed mortars, these are best as they will not absorb flavourings or coulorings PHYSICAL PHARMACY PHYSICAL PHARMACY Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy physical pharmacy physical pharmacy
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PHARMACY physical pharmacy physical pharmacy physical pharmacy Ointment Tiles what will you be making and why Lab book Welcome to ... How to use this prezi lab book This prezi is designed to guide you through your physical pharmacy lab sessions. To get the most out of this module use alongside your lab book.

It gives you background on the different types of formulations you will be making and what they are used for. It will include video tutorials on the techniques and processes you will be using in the labs to create your products... tips on completing your batch sheets... and guidance on accessing the british pharmacopeia. Icons to watch out for!! CHECK LIST Use the checklist icon to make sure you have included each point (particularly useful in the batch sheet section) RELEVANCE! Think
Pharmacy! COM ON MISTAKESS HANDY HINT This icon will show you how these labs will link directly to your role as a pharmacist Each year students tend to fall into the same traps. Use this icon to make sure you don't. little hints and tips to help you along your way Key Concepts! This icon will highlight some fundamental concepts relevant to your labs THINK! This icon will ask you questions or highlight ideas which are important to keep in mind You can follow the path already set out or you can choose your own path.

Choose which ever way you feel is most useful to you. Why use this prezi? you should already be familiar with these Equipment you will be using QUIZ TIME ? ? ? ? ? ? QUIZ TIME ? ? ? ? ? ? Your Definition REVISION REVISION REVISION revision revision revision ferrous sulphate is one of your top 100 drug cards Physical Pharmacy Physical Pharmacy
On with the Prezi ............. Topical applications Oral solutions Answer = b
Topical applications may show sedimentation therefore ‘’shake before use’’ is added to the label Local effect
Do not show sedimentation
Easy to apply
High patient acceptability
Fewer side effects than oral delivery Which of these is not an advantage of topical applications? Answer = b – calamine lotion can be applied as many times as the patient needs It is indicated for soothing itchy, irritated or sun burnt skin
The lotion can only be applied a certain amount of times a day
Calamine lotion is for external use only
People hypersensitive to the ingredients may experience skin irritation.
Calamine lotion is safe to use in breastfeeding and pregnant women Which of these is not a counselling point for calamine lotion? Aqueous solution
Non aqueous solution
Aqueous suspension
Oral emulsion
Linctuses Magnesium Trisilicate is a... These products must have been prepared not more than 24 hours before issue to the patient and has a total shelf life of 2 weeks
These products must have been prepared not more than 2 weeks before issue to the patient and has a total shelf life of 4 weeks
These products must have been prepared not more than 36 hours before issue to the patient and has a total shelf life of 2 weeks
These products must have been prepared not more than 24 hours before issue to the patient and has a total shelf life of 4 weeks
These products must have been prepared not more than 1 week before issue to the patient and has a total shelf life of 3 weeks What is the definition for freshly prepared? Answer = C normally ferrous sulphate should be taken before food on an empty stomach. However if it causes an upset stomach, then it may be taken with or after food May turn your stools black
Some of the side effects you may experience are; abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea and nausea and vomiting
Should be taken with meals
It is indicated for preventing and treating iron deficiency anemia
Should not be used in people who are anemic due to folic acid deficiency. What is not a counseling point for pediatric ferrous sulphate solution? Answer = B
The ribbed amber medicine bottle allows a distinction between liquids for topical application from liquids for oral use, which are dispensed into a smooth amber medicine bottle. A patient confusing a liquid for topical application with one for oral use can have serious consequences and cause harm for the patient. A smooth amber medicine bottle
A ribbed amber medicine bottle Topical liquids should be dispensed in ... Answer = e
This would be a consideration if you were making a liquid for topical application Ease of use
Chemical stability
Cost
Patient acceptability
Ease of application to skin Which of these does not need to be considered when formulating an oral solution? 1 =c or f, 2=b, 3=c or f, 4=d, 5=a, 6= e Suspending agent
Flavoring
Vehicle
Colouring
Preservative
Vehicle Ethanol
Blackcurrant syrup
Purified water
Amaranth solution
Tragacanth
Double strength chloroform water Match up the following excipient and its use ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Quiz Time ? ? ? ? a
b
c
d
e a
b
c
d
e
f 1
2
3
4
5
6 a
b

c
d
e a

b

c

d

e Answer = A
Freshly prepared items have a much shorter shelf life than recently prepared Answer = c
magnesium trisilicate is an aqueous suspension a
b
c
d
e a
b
c
d
e a
b a
b
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e Creams are single phase preparations consisting of a single lipophilic phase.
Creams are multiphase preparations consisting of two different lipophilic phases
Creams are multiphase preparations consisting of one lipophilic phase and one aqueous phase
the end ! Which of the following statements are false... Answer = B The tile method prepares large quantities of cream up to 10kg
The tile method prepares small quantities of cream up to 100g
The fusion method allows insoluble materials to be incorporated into the cream
The tile method is used for creams which doesn't contain drugs Which of the following statements are true... Answer = A
Topical applications are homogeneous in appearance Topical applications are heterogeneous in appearance
Preparations intended for use on severely injured skin must be sterile
Topical applications are intended to be applied to the skin and certain mucus surfaces
Topical applications work locally Answer = C
Calamine lotion is really good at treating sand soothing sun burnt skin Aqueous cream is used as a soap substitute for dry skin
Beeswax barrier cream relives dry skin conditions such as eczema
Calamine ointment is not appropriate for sun burnt skin
Calamine ointment is used to relive itching and irritated skin Answer = A Hydrophobic creams are often used as barrier creams with incorporated drugs in the lipophilic phase
Hydrophobic creams are often used when the cream needs to be absorbed into the skin with the drug incorporated in the aqueous phase
Hydrophilic creams are often used as barrier creams with incorporated drugs in the lipophilic phase
Hydrophobic creams are often used when the cream needs to be absorbed into the skin with the drug incorporated in the lipophilic Answer = B Hydrophobic gels are water miscible and are used when absorption into the skin is not required
Hydrophilic gels are water miscible and are used when absorption into the skin is required
Hydrophobic gels are water immiscible and are used when absorption into the skin is required
Hydrophilic gels are water immiscible and are used when absorption into the skin is not required Answer = A
Pastes tend to contain as much as 50%w/w solid material whereas ointments only 10%w/w Pastes are usually much thicker than ointments
Pastes are usually the same thickness as ointments
Pastes are usually thinner than ointments ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Quiz Time ? ? ? ? a
b
c a

b

c

d Answer = c a

b

c a

b


c

d a
b
c

d a
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c
d a
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d O/W emulsifying agents are required for o/w creams. these may be anionic, cationic or non ionic and so the cream can be regarded as anionic, cationic or non ionic. anionic emulsifying agents
E.g. sodium lauryl sulphate, in solution this will dissociate to give a large anion C12H25SO4- and the Na+ cation (large anion is the emulsifying agent.
For creams, sodium lauryl sulphate is most commonly used together with the non ionic cetosteryl alcohol
e.g. aqueous cream cationic emulsifying agents
drugs containing N atoms
In water, a N atom will react to give a NH+ cation and an OH- anion.
If the drug molecule has a N atom it is therefore CATIONIC
Its therefore compatible with a cationic emulsifying agent
liquid preparations containing a mixture of oil and water which is rendered homogeneous by the addition of an emulsifying agent Same as the previous slide on stability and expiry dates. This is only a general method to guide you. This method alone is not good enough to use in your batch sheets. Again only a general method. More detail needed for batch sheets some of the exipients used in this method may be different from your actual formula. It's the general method which is important For more detail look in your lab book under the cream section as with the other methods this is only a general method to give you an idea of the method to include into your batch sheets
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