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The Evangelists

Chapter 3 on the 4 evangelists and the infancy narratives from Luke and Matthew
by

Mr. Sullivan

on 16 September 2014

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Transcript of The Evangelists

About the Author


Probable date written


Historical Situation


Original Audience/
Author's Community


Literary Style


Genealogy


Prominent Themes


Key Words


Portrait of Jesus


75 - 80 AD
The Romans had just destroyed Jerusalem,
including the Temple
The Temple is destroyed in 70 AD
Jewish Christians (perhaps in Antioch)
Filled with quotes from the Old Testament
and references to the Prophets
Teaching in style
Lengthy, but organized discourses
Filled with ethical and moral content
Starts with Abraham and goes to Jesus
Why is this important?
Law and promise
fulfillment
kingdom
righteousness
The teaching Messiah
A prophet like Moses
Son of David, Isaac, Abraham
and Jacob
About the Author


Probable date written


Historical Situation


Original Audience/
Author's Community


Literary Style


Genealogy


Prominent Themes


Key Words


Portrait of Jesus


Around 85 AD
Roman persecution is intensifying
Doctor or physician
Greek Gentiles
Very eloquent, well written
Parables
Narrative in nature
Starts with Jesus and goes to Adam
Why is this important?
Grace, salvation and discipleship
compassion
prayer
concern for the poor
Humanity
"Son of Adam"
About the Author


Probable date written


Historical Situation


Original Audience/
Author's Community


Literary Style


Genealogy


Prominent Themes


Key Words


Portrait of Jesus
The first Gospel written
The Romans actively persecuting and subduing Jews and Christians
Second generation Christian
Gentile Christians
This community was very likely being persecuted
The Suffering Messiah
Servant of the Lord
Servant
No genealogy
Why not?
Power vs service

humility
Kingdom of God vs Kingdom of Darkness
Soon, immediacy
Believing, faith
Preaching
Filled with miracles
Evangelizing in tone
About the Author


Probable date written


Historical Situation


Original Audience/
Author's Community


Literary Style


Genealogy


Prominent Themes


Key Words


Portrait of Jesus


Around 100 AD
Emperor Domitian declares himself a god and demands that all people worship him
Persecutions are at a height and Jewish leaders ban Christians from Synagogues
The "beloved disciple"
Gentiles and "exiled" Jewish-Christians
Perhaps somewhere around Ephesus (Modern Day Turkey)
Highly poetic
Seemingly anti-Semitic?
What is the genealogy in John?
Jesus is God.
Bread of Life, Word of God
Logos
Redeemer
Messiah, Lord
THE Messiah
Word made flesh
Jesus as path to salvation and the Father
Do now:


How does the audience a writer writes to affect how and what he or she writes?
Around 70 AD
Very well educated
The Evangelists
Possibly a follower of Peter
Though of as the "John Mark" in Acts
may have traveled with Paul
Writes to "Theophilus"
Literally means "lover of God"
Theophilus could be a person, or all Christians
Healing
The Healing Messiah
Perhaps a disciple or community of disciples of John
Signs and discourses (the "I am" speeches)
John 1:1
1 In the beginning was the Word,

and the Word was with God,

and the Word was God.

2He was in the beginning with God.

3All things came to be through him,

and without him nothing came to be.

What came to be 4through him was life,

and this life was the light of the human race;

5 the light shines in the darkness,

and the darkness has not overcome it.

Signs or miracles
Perhaps Matthew the Apostle or one of his followers
Infancy Narratives in Matthew
Genealogy (Mt 1:1-17)
Jesus' genealogy begins with Abraham, the father of faith
It continues on through Isaac, Jacob, David and the patriarchs
This emphasized Jesus' role in fulfilling Jewish prophecy
His genealogy also mentions people like Judah, Rahab and Bathsheba - people known for their wickedness and sins
This emphasized that God accomplishes His plan through all types of people
Birth of Jesus (Mt 1:18-25)
The angel of the Lord visits in a dream
Joseph and instructs him to take the Holy Family to Egypt
The Jewish audience of Matthew would have found this fascinating:
1. Joseph, son of Jacob, was an interpreter of dreams
2. Joseph, son of Jacob, took his family into Egypt to avoid the famine
3. Joseph is from Bethlehem, the same town where King David was from
The parallels with Joseph and the mention of 5 old testament prophecies in the narrative are clear indicators that Matthew was showing how Jesus is the promised Messiah
Visit of the Magi (Mt 2:1-12)
In the context of Jesus being the Messiah of the Jewish people, what might the three Wise Men from The East represent?
1. Jesus Christ is the King
2. Jesus Christ is the King of all peoples
The Flight to Egypt (Mt 2:13-18)
Jesus is portrayed as the New Moses in the Gospel of Matthew
Like Moses, Jesus narrowly escapes death as an infant
Further, as Moses lead the people out of slavery from Egypt, Jesus leads His people out of slavery from Sin
The Red Sea liberates the Hebrew people...
The waters of Baptism are the new Red Sea
For review...
Matthew is writing to:


Joseph is the new:
Why?


Jesus is the new:
Why?
Jewish Christians
Joseph (Son of Jacob)
Interprets dreams, flight to Egypt
Moses
Massacre of Holy Innocents, new Lawgiver, liberates His people
Infancy Narratives in Luke
John the Baptist (Lk 1:5-25)
John was born to Zechariah and Elizabeth
John is though of as the New Elijah - Why?
Like any other prophet, John announced and foretold the coming of Christ
John the Baptist is thought of as the "bridge" between the Old Testament and the New Testament
"I must decrease, and he must increase"
The Annunciation (Lk 1:26-38)
and Visitation (Lk1:39-56)
Mary is confused (obviously) at first, but responds with one of the most important phrases in the Bible"
"Behold, I am the handmaid of the Lord. Be it done unto me according to your word."
From the encounters with the angel and Elizabeth, we get the words to the Hail Mary prayer:
The Birth of Jesus (Lk 2:1-20)
When we think about the "Christmas Story" we are most often thinking about Luke's account:
Jesus' Circumcision and
Presentation in the Temple (Lk 2:21-38)
Jesus is circumcised to show His adherence to Jewish laws and customs - why would Luke include this?
Simeon and Ann, the two prophets, see and recognize Jesus as the Messiah
Simeon looks at Mary and says "and behold, a sword will piece your heart as well"
The Finding of Jesus in the Temple (Lk 2:39-52)
Luke writes that Jesus grew up and grew strong, being obedient to His parents
What might this tell us about Jesus?
The angel Gabriel appears to Mary and tells her she will conceive and give birth to a child
Mary travels to share her news with her cousin Elizabeth (the mother of John)
"Hail favored one, the Lord is with you!" (1:28)
"Most blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb!" (1:42)
the angel Gabriel
Born in the manger
Shepherds visit the baby
wrapped in swaddling cloth
Angels sing in the fields
When Jesus was 12, he was found missing on a caravan.
His parents return to the Temple and find the boy Jesus preaching to the scribes, or experts of the Law
For Review...
Luke is writing to:


The infant Jesus is portrayed as:


What is the importance of Mary?
Gentile Christians
poor and humble
Full transcript