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Of Agriculture reports that children in the US consume too many non-nutritional calories and too little
nutrients, which can lead to malnutrition, obesity or both. Malnutrition in turn leads to difficulty
learning, poor growth, fatigue, dizziness, weakness, low body weight and decaying teeth.
The number of calories a child needs depends on their age, gender and activity level . According to the
US Dept of Agriculture, girls aged 4 – 8 need 1,200 to 1,800 calories, ages 9 – 13 require 1,400 to 2,200
and teenagers 14 – 18 require 1,800 to 2,400 calories each day.
Boys age 4 – 8 require 1,200 to 2,000…9 – 13 require 1,600 to 2,600 …and 14 – 18 require 2,000 to
3,200 respectively to maintain a proper diet and healthy body weight.
Protein is important for growth, strength, and muscle maintenance in school aged children. According
to the Institute of Medicine, children aged 4 – 8 need at least 19 grams of protein, ages 9 – 13 require 34
grams of protein, teen GIRLS 14 – 18 require 46 grams and boys 14 – 18 require 52 grams per day.
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy and all children after age 1 require 130 grams of carbs per
day.Fats tend to improve cognitive development and the recommendation for children ages 4 and up is to consume 25% to 35% of their daily caloric intake from fats…particularly foods high in omega 3 fatty
acids. Vitamins and minerals may be consumed independently in foods the child eats or in a multivitamin recommended by your child’s physician. Important nutrients for the school aged child are calcium (dairy products and calcium fortified products), iron (meats and iron fortified grains), iodine (seafood and iodized salt), Vitamin A (fruits and vegetables) and Vitamin D (dairy products). Socialization One of the most important socializing agents in the school age years is the peer group. Peer groups have a culture of their own with secrets, traditions and codes of ethics that promote feelings of solidarity and detachment from adults. Children of this age group learn how to deal with dominance and hostility, how to relate to persons in postitions of leadership and authority, and how to explore ideas and the physical environment. This is an important factor in gaining their independence from parents. Sex role is influenced by relationships with peers. Both girls and boys share games and other activities. Lessons are learned from their daily interaction with age-mate: First, children learn to appreciate the numerous and varied points of view other than their own. Second, children become increasingly sensitive to the social norms and pressures of their peer group. Third, the interaction among peers leads to the formation of intimate friendships. Play in this group involves increased physical skill, intellectual ability, and fantasy. Also a sense of belonging to a team or club forming groups. Newly acquired skills of reading becomes increasingly satisfying as these children expand their knowledge of the world through books, as well as computers and even educational video games. Sewing, cooking, carpentry, gardening, and painting are also enjoyed. Many creative skills are also enjoyed such as swimming, karate, dancing, and skating. Acquire Concrete Operation: the ability to relate a series of events to mental representations that can be expressed both verbally and symbolically. They use thought process to experience events and action. They are able to see things from another person’s perspective. They develop an understanding of relationships between things and ideas. They are able to master symbols and use their memories of past experiences to evaluate and interpret the present. They master the concept of conservation: they know that simply altering the arrangement of something in space does not change certain properties of the environment. They acquire classification skills: able to group and sort objects according to attributes that they share. They begin to order their environment manifested in collections of shells, stickers, cars. They understand relational terms such as bigger, higher, right or, last. They learn to see the relationship of event in time and can tell time. They are able to combine space and time. The ability to read is acquired during these school years and becomes the most significant and valuable tool for independent inquiry. These children’s capacity to explore, imagine and expand their knowledge is enhanced by reading. Cognitive Erikson's Psychosocial Verbal Abilities Sleep Needs Safety Concerns Health Issue/Problems Exploring the World of
School-Aged Children 6-12 years Individual sleep requirements for school-agers vary but typically they sleep during the night approximately 11 hrs at age 5years and 9.5 hours at age 12 yrs. Because growth rate slows, school-agers actually need less sleep compared to an increase need for sleep during adolescence.
Do not require a nap.
The child’s bedtime can be later than during the preschool period but should be firmly established and adhered to on school nights.
Reading, listening to music, or coloring before bedtime may facilitate sleep and set up a positive bedtime pattern
Children may be unaware of fatigue; if allowed to remain awake, they will be tired the next day. The most common cause of severe injury and death in school-age children is motor vehicle accidents- either as pedestrian or passenger.
It is important that the nurse should emphasis three automobile safety measures to help reduce severity of injuries:
-effective car restraint systems
-appropriate passenger-seating locations in the motor vehicle
Others: riding bicycle, skateboards, roller skates, scooters, and other sports equipment. Safety helmets, protective eye and mouth shields, and protective padding are strongly recommended. -Sense of industry or sense of accomplishment
-achieved between age 6 and adolescence
-children eager to develop skills and participate in meaningful and socially useful work
-sense of personal and interpersonal competence
-receive the systemic instruction prescribed by their individual cultures
-develop skills needed to become useful, contributing members of their social communities
- Interests expand
-growing sense of independence
-engage in tasks and completion
- gain satisfaction through exploring, manipulating the environment, interacting with peers, and socializing
-Reinforcement examples that provides encouragement and stimulation:
-ability to cooperate
-Sense of accomplishment involve:
-compete with others
-cope effectively with people
-Children learn value and benefits from labor.
-Peer approval is a strong motivating power.
-Danger of sense of inferiority
-physical and mental limitations
-incapable of developing skills and cannot master tasks
-no child is able to do everything well
-child must learn to accept not everything can be mastered Kindergarten:
- “Know, identify and read 20 high frequency words (e.g. A, The, An, It)”
-“Recognize, say and identify the alphabet. Kindergarten students should also known and make the sounds of the alphabet. Single sounds.”
-“Be able to understand short stories. Read basic short sentences ( e.g. The cat sat down.) Child should be able to recite the sequence of events in a story.”
-“Child is reading for a purpose now. And able to understand what the author of the story is inferring. The child should also be able to know 300 high frequency words and reading 90 to 100 words per minute”
-“Child should be able to convey thoughts clearly verbally and in a paragraph.”
-“Child is telling short stories and able to write 3 paragraphs.”
-“There is a high level of analysis such as, why the author wrote that sentence? Or prediction of what will happen next in the story”
4th and 5th grade:
-“Children are now reading and listening to learn rather just understand”
-“Child is now expressing and writing in an elaborative, persuasive and comparative manner”
-“Feels they are in charge of their own knowledge and can short stories and papers”
6th and 7th grade
-“They facilitate own learning and read for learning. Child is able to be prompted such as ‘The president recently did this…’ and expand on this prompting.”
-“They can recognize sentence structures and different parts of a sentence. For example, the child can recognize the subject, verb, gerunds, participle, adjectives and nouns.” Health problems related to sports participation:
Overuse syndromes are common in school aged children being forced to train longer, harder, and earlier in life.
Repetitive microtrauma: occur to a particular anatomic structure when the same movements are performed over a long period.
Result: inflammation of the involved structure with chronic pain, tenderness, swelling, and disability.
Examples: tendinitis and osteochondritis from repetitive throwing “little league elbow” , tennis elbow, and Osgood-Schlatters disease (traction apophysitits
Sports injuries in children:
Concern for children who are involved in intensive training from an early age.
Many children are starting training before puberty and these increases the risk of acute and overuse injuries.
Injuries occur in school aged children because their body is no suited to the sport and their muscles and body systems are not conditioned to endure physical stress.
They lack the insight and judgment to recognize that an activity exceeds their physical abilities.
of the tibial tubercle)
Inflammation is common in all overuse injuries, rest, alteration of physical activities, physical therapy, cryotherapy, bracing, splinting, and medication are management approaches.
Primary purpose is to alleviate the repetitive stress that initiates they symptoms.
Exposure to a variety of activities is better for young children than limiting them to one sport.
Caution parents against overcommitting children to sports activities.
Children should be suited to the environment and the equipment must be safe.
Nurses, coaches, and athletic trainers must ensure safety measures such as stretching exercises, warm-up, and cool-down for activities.
Taping, pads, and wrapping are also important to prevent injury.
Achilles tendon injuries are most common in middle-aged 'weekend warriors' who may not exercise regularly or take time to stretch properly. Among professional athletes, most Achilles injuries occur in quick-acceleration and jumping sports like football and hurdles. They can be so sudden and agonising and almost always end the season's competition for the athlete
Lee focuses on the most common injurypatterns to baseball pitchers, which include Little League elbow (LLE) and Little League shoulder (LLS). He discusses the risk factors of pitching that caused these injuries. He also provides the interview questions and discusses the procedures of physical examinations to the pitchers. Moreover, he talks about the pitching mechanics or the biomechanics of throwing, which is considered as a crucial factor in accurately preventing, diagnosing, and treating throwing-related injuries. He also considers the types of pitches thrown and the number of pitches thrown as contributing factors to the development of LLE and LLS. He lists the recommendations by the USA Baseball Medical and Safety Advisory Committee and offers injuryprevention tips and guidelines that primary care providers can discuss during sportspreparticipation examinations. These injuriesdo occur, but it is proposed that early intervention and and proper treatment can minimize the risks of permanent injuryand send the athlete on the road to a complete recovery.
Journal Article Perry, S. E. (2010). The school-age child and family. Maternal child nursing care (4th ed., pp. 1077-1104). Maryland Heights, Mo.: Mosby Elsevier. kleposki, r., wells, l., wilson, m., & sehgal, k. (2009). Rotator Cuff Injuries in Skeletally Immature Patients Prevention and Indicators for the Orthopaedic Nurse. Orthopedic Nursing, 28(3), 134-140. References Brian Almojuela
Melissa (Lissa) Gimenez
Group Members Thank You and study hard for finals!!!