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Ch. 14 Sect. 1

Industrialization (11th Grade U.S. History II)
by

Seth Graham

on 23 August 2013

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Transcript of Ch. 14 Sect. 1

Bellringer
K-W-L Chart
"Industrialization"

The United States Industrializes

With the end of the Civil War, American industry expanded and millions of people left their farms to work in mines and factories.

By the early 1900s, the United States had become the world’s leading industrial nation.

By 1914 the gross national product (GNP), or total value of goods and services produced by a country, was eight times greater than at the end of the Civil War.

The United States Industrializes

Water, timber, coal, iron, and copper are natural resources found in the United States that led to the country’s industrial success.

Transcontinental railroads increased industrialization by bringing settlers and miners to the West and moving resources to the factories in the East.

Petroleum could be turned into kerosene for lanterns and stoves.

The United States Industrializes

The demand for kerosene created the American oil industry.

In 1859 Edwin Drake drilled the first oil well near Titusville, Pennsylvania.

As oil production increased, so did economic expansion.

Between 1860 and 1910, the population of the United States tripled.

This provided a large workforce and a greater demand for consumer goods.

Laissez-faire, a French phrase that means “let people do as they choose,” was a popular idea in the late 1800s.

Many Americans believed the government should not interfere with the economy.

Instead, they wanted supply and demand to regulate prices and wages.

Entrepreneurs risked their capital to organize and run a business.

Free Enterprise

Free Enterprise (cont.)

As a result, hundreds of factories and thousands of miles of railroad were built.

Another important source of private capitol was Europe.

Foreign investors saw more opportunity for profit in the U.S. than they did at home.

In the late 1800s, entrepreneurs were attracted to manufacturing and transportation fields.

In the late 1800s, state and federal government had a laissez-faire attitude by keeping taxes and spending low and by not imposing regulations on industry.

The government did not control wages or prices.

It adopted policies to help industry.

Since the early 1800s, the northeastern states and southern states debated on economic policies.

Government’s Role in Industrialism

Government’s Role in Industrialism

Northerners wanted high tariffs to protect their industries from foreign competition.

Southerners opposed tariffs to keep the cost of imported goods down.

The Civil War ended the economic debate.

After the south seceded, the Morrill Tariff was passed, which reversed years of declining tariffs.

Government’s Role in Industrialism

The high tariffs contradicted laissez-faire policies and harmed many Americans.

As the United States raised tariffs on foreign products, other countries responded by raising tariffs against American products.

American companies who sold goods overseas, especially farmers, were hurt by these high tariffs.

Government’s Role in Industrialism

Many business leaders and members of Congress felt tariffs were necessary to protect American industry against the already established European factories.

By the early 1900s, American industries were larger and highly competitive.

Many business leaders began to encourage free trade, believing they could compete internationally and succeed.

New Inventions (cont.)


In the late 1800s, Thomas Alva Edison invented or perfected the phonograph, the light bulb, the electric generator, the dictaphone, and the motion picture.

In 1882 an Edison Company began to transform American society when it started supplying electric power to customers in New York City.

New inventions increased America’s productivity, which in turn produced wealth and job opportunities.

In 1876 Scottish-American inventor Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.

In 1877 Bell and his associates organized the Bell Telephone Company, which later became the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T).

New Inventions

Another innovation, the radio, became common in American home’s in the 1920s.

New Inventions (cont.)

In 1866 Cyrus Field laid a telegraph cable across the Atlantic Ocean, providing instant contact between the United States and Europe. 

Technology improved connections among people. 
Full transcript