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Copy of IURI 211: LE // SU 4

Wederregtelikheid: Tweede Element van 'n Misdryf // Unlawfulness: Second Element of a Crime
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Juan-pierre Crause

on 14 March 2014

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Transcript of Copy of IURI 211: LE // SU 4

LEEREENHEID 4

Wederregtelikheid: Tweede Element van 'n Misdryf

STUDY UNIT 4

Unlawfulness: Second Element of a Crime
ENIGE VRAE?
ANY QUESTIONS?
WAT WORD VAN U VERWAG?

https://googledrive.com/host/0ByNh1R6mT4Q3T1NhRFhHRVZvRTQ/

WHAT IS EXPECTED OF YOU?

https://googledrive.com/host/0ByNh1R6mT4Q3MXpkbXhiQmJIR3M/
JURI 211

STRAFREG
CRIMINAL LAW

Hersieningsoefening //
Revision Exercise
STAP 1
Maak die 'internet browser' op u 'smartphone', selfoon, iPad of skoortekenaar met internettoegang oop.
Open the internet browser on your smarthpone, cell phone, iPad or laptop with internet access.
STAP 2
Tike die volgende adres in: 'm.socrative.com'
Klik enter/'go to'/'proceed' ens.
U sal nou skerm
(1)
sien.
Type in the following address: 'm.socrative.com'.
Press enter/go to etc.
You will now see screen
(1)
.
STAP 3
By 'room number' tik in 'jlm' en klik op 'join room'.
U sal nou skerm
(2)
sien.
Wag vir verdere instruksies.
Type in 'jlm' at 'room number' and click on 'join room'.
You will now see screen

(2)
.
Wait for further instructions.
WHAT DID WE DISCUSS LAST WEEK?
WAT HET ONS VERLEDE WEEK BEHANDEL?
VOORBEREIDING

https://googledrive.com/host/0ByNh1R6mT4Q3T1NhRFhHRVZvRTQ/

PREPARATION

https://googledrive.com/host/0ByNh1R6mT4Q3MXpkbXhiQmJIR3M/
(1)
(2)
Misdryf
Crime
Willekeurige menslike handeling.
Uitsluitingsgronde:
Outomatisme & Absolute Dwang

Voluntary human conduct.
Defences: Automatism & compulsion.
Wederregtelikheid.
Uitgesluit deur regverdigingsgronde.

Unlawfulness.
Excluded by grounds of justification.
Toerekeningsvatbaarheid.
Nie element van misdryf nie.
Voorvereiste vir skuld.
Uitgesluit deur skulduitsluitingsgrond.
Capacity.
Not element of crime.
Prerequisite for fault.
Excluded by grounds excluding fault.
Skuld.
Bestaan uit opset of nalatigheid.
Uitgesluit deur skulduitsluitingsgronde.

Fault.
Consists of intention or negligence.
Excluded by grounds excluding fault.
Kousaliteit.
Feitelik & Juridies

Causation.
Factual & legal.
LE / SU 3
LE / SU 4
LE / SU 5
LE / SU 6
LE / SU 7
Die groter prentjie ...
The bigger picture
...
Voldoening aan legaliteitsbeginsel

Compliance with principle of legality
LE / SU 2
REGVERDIGINGSGRONDE
WAT WORD VAN U VERWAG?
Optrede in stryd met strafregtelike verbod
Conduct in conflict with criminal law prohibition
WEDERREGTELIKHEID
UNLAWFULNESS
Hoe word wederregtelikheid bepaal?
How is unlawfulness determined?
Hoe word die toets vir wederregtelikheid in die praktyk toegepas?
How is the test for unlawfulness applied in practice?
Wat het die hof in S v Engelbrecht tov die toets van wederregtelikheid gesê?
What did the court in S v Engelbrecht say with regard to the test for unlawfulness?
Is daar enige manier waarop die wederregtelikheid van 'n persoon se handeling uitgesluit kan word?
Indien wel, kan u aan 'n voorbeeld dink?
Is there any way in which the unlawfulness of a person's conduct can be excluded?
If so, can you think of an example?
WAT WORD VAN U VERWAG?

https://googledrive.com/host/0ByNh1R6mT4Q3T1NhRFhHRVZvRTQ/

WHAT IS EXPECTED OF YOU?

https://googledrive.com/host/0ByNh1R6mT4Q3MXpkbXhiQmJIR3M/
REGVERDIGINGSGRONDE
GROUNDS OF JUSTIFICATION
NOODWEER
PRIVATE DEFENCE
NOODTOESTAND
NECESSITY
ONMOONTLIKHEID
IMPOSSIBILITY
TOESTEMMING
CONSENT
REGMATIGE

TUGBEVOEGDHEID
LAWFUL DISCIPLINARY CHASTISEMENT
AMPTELIKE

BEVOEGDHEID
PUBLIC

AUTHORITY
BESKRYF IN U EIE WOORDE WAT U ONDER DIE TERM 'REGVERDIGINGSGROND' VERSTAAN.
DESCRIBE IN YOUR OWN WORDS WHAT YOU UNDERSTAND UNDER THE TERM 'GROUNDS OF JUSTIFICATION'
GEEN
STRAFREGTELIKE AANSPREEKLIKHEID
NO
CRIMINAL LIABILITY
Noodweer
Private defence
EIENDOM
PROPERTY
VEREISTES VIR AANVAL/BEDREIGING
REQUIREMENTS FOR ATTACK/THREAT
REEDS BEGONNE OF DREIGEND
IN PROGRESS OR IMMINENT
WEDERREGTELIK
UNLAWFUL
REGSBESKERMDE BELANG BEDREIG
LEGALLY PROTECTED INTEREST THREATENED
VEREISTES VIR REAKSIE
REQUIREMENTS FOR RESPONSE
WAT IS DIE REGSPOSISIE WAAR 'N PERSOON MEER GEWELD GEBRUIK AS WAT NODIG IS?
WHAT IS THE LEGAL POSITION WHERE THE DEFENDER USES MORE FORCE THAN IS NECESSARY?

S v Ntuli 1975 1 SA 429 (A)
GEWELD GERIG TEENOOR AANVALLER
FORCE AIMED AT ATTACKER
REDELIK
REASONABLE
NOODSAAKLIK
NECESSARY
VEREISTES VIR GEVAAR/BEDREIGING
REQUIREMENTS FOR THREAT/DANGER
BEDREIGING/GEVAAR ERNSTIG
THREAT/DANGER SERIOUS
BEDREIGING/GEVAAR TEENWOORDIG
THREAT/DANGER PRESENT
REGSBESKERMDE BELANG IN EIENDOM BEDREIG
LEGALLY PROTECTED INTEREST IN PROPERTY THREATENED/ENDANGERED
WEDERREGTELIK
UNLAWFUL
VEREISTES VIR REAKSIE
REQUIREMENTS FOR RESPONSE
REDELIK
REASONABLE
GEWELD GERIG TEENOOR AANVALLER
FORCE AIMED AT ATTACKER
NOODSAAKLIK
NECESSARY
PUTATIEWE NOODWEER
PUTATIVE PRIVATE DEFENCE
"I fail to understand how I could be charged with murder, let alone premeditated murder, as I had no intention to kill my girlfriend," Pistorius insisted.
"I heard a noise and realised that someone was in the bathroom. I felt a sense of terror rushing over me. There are no burglar bars across the bathroom window and I knew that contractors who worked at my house had left the ladders outside. Although I did not have my prosthetic legs on I have mobility on my stumps.

"I believed that someone had entered my house. I was too scared to switch a light on. I grabbed my 9mm pistol from underneath my bed. On my way to the bathroom I screamed words to the effect for him/them to get out of my house and for Reeva to phone the police. It was pitch dark in the bedroom and I thought Reeva was in bed."
http://www.guardian.co.uk/sport/2013/feb/19/oscar-pistorius-trial-reeva-steenkamp
Kan u optree teen iemand wat ontoerekeningsvatbaar is?
Can you defend yourself against a person who lacks criminal capacity?
A slaan B met die vuis. B pluk sy pistool uit en skiet op A. Is B se optrede wederregtelik? Kan A nou in noodweer teenoor B optree?
A hits B with the fist. B pulls out his pistol and shoots A. Is B's conduct unlawful?
Can A now act in private defence towards B?
Kan mens optree om die belange van 'n derde persoon te beskerm?
Can one act to protect the interests of a third person?
Moet die aanvaller die eerste hou gee voordat mens kan optree?
Must the attacker give the first blow before one can act?
Kan jy 'n derde persoon se eiendom beskerm?
Can you protect a third person's property?
Speel die waarde van die eiendom 'n rol?
Does the value of the property play a role?
Kan mens na die voorval optree ten einde gesteelde eiendom terug te kry?
Can one act afterwards in order to recover stolen property?
Kan jy iemand dood ter beskerming van eiendom?
Can lethal force be used to protect property?

Ex Parte Minister van Justisie // Minister of Justice:
In Re S v Van Wyk
VEREISTES VIR DREIGEMENT/GEVAAR
REQUIREMENTS FOR THREAT/DANGER
GEVAAR REEDS BEGONNE/DREIGEND
THREAT COMMENCED/IMMINENT
(DREIGENDE) GEVAAR NIE WEENS BESKULDIGDE SE EIE GEDRAG
THREAT/DANGER NOT THROUGH ACCUSED'S OWN FAULT
REGSBELANG IN GEVAAR
LEGAL INTEREST IN DANGER
VEREISTES VIR REAKSIE
REQUIREMENTS FOR REACTION
REDELIK
REASONABLE
NOODSAAKLIK
NECESSARY
NOODTOESTAND?
NECESSITY?
S v Goliath 1972 3 SA 1 (A)
PLIG OM LEED TE VERDUUR
OBLIGATION TO SUFFER HARM
BESONDERE
GEVALLE
SPECIAL SITUATIONS
NOODTOESTAND
NECESSITY
AANVAL //

ATTACK

Wederregtelik /
Unlawful?
Regsbeskermde belang?
Legally protected interest?
Reeds begonne

/ Dreigend?
In progress / Imminent?
REAKSIE //

DREIGEMENT

Noodsaaklik /
Necessary?
Redelik /
Reasonable?
Oormatige geweld?
Excessive Force?
NOODWEER (PERSOON)
PRIVATE DEFENCE (PERSON)
GEVAAR /

DANGER

Wederregtelik?
Unlawful?
Regsbelang
Legal interest?
Ernstig /
Serious?
Teenwoordig
Present
REAKSIE /

REACTION

Noodsaaklik?
Necessary?
Redelik?
Reasonable?
NOODWEER (EIENDOM)
PRIVATE DEFENCE (PROPERTY)
GEVAAR /

DANGER

Regsbelang?
Legal interest?
Reeds begonne/Dreigend?
Commenced/Imminent
Eie skuld?
Own fault?
REAKSIE /
RESPONSE

Noodsaaklik?
Necessary?
Redelik?
Reasonable?
NOODTOESTAND
NECESSITY
ONMOONTLIKHEID
IMPOSSIBILITY
Nakoming van reg absoluut onmoontlik
Compliance with law absolutely impossible
Onmoontlikheid nie beskuldigde se eie skuld
Impossibility not accused's own fault
Onregmatige late
Unlawful ommission
KLASOEFENING
CLASS EXERCISE
INSTRUKSIES //
INSTRUCTIONS
Verdeel uself in groepe van vier.
Divide yourself into groups of four.
Elke groepslid som
EEN
van die verwere gelys onder op:
dmv 'n breinkaart;
volgens die vrae gelys hieronder.
Each group member summarises
ONE
of the defences below:
bmo a mindmap;
according to the questions below.
VERWERE //

DEFENCES
(1) Onmoontlikheid //

Impossibility
(2) Toestemming //

Consent
(3) Regmatige tugbevoegdheid //

Lawful

chastisement
(4) Amptelike bevoegdheid //

Public

authority
VRAE //

QUESTIONS
A) Definieer die verweer (maks 2 sinne) //

Define the defence (max 2 sentences)
B) Wie kan daarop steun //

Who can rely on it
?
C) Wat is die vereistes vir en/of omstandighede waaronder verweer geopper kan
word?

(NB! U moet daartoe in staat wees om hierdie vereistes en/of op praktiese feitestelle toe te pas!

Onthou ook van enige toepaslike regspraak!)
What are the requirements for and/or circumstances in which the defence can
be raised?
(NB! You must be able to apply these requirements and/or circumstances to a practical set of facts! Also remember any relevant case law!)
Toestemming
Consent
Geringe beserings
Minor injuries
Mediese operasies & behandelings
Medical operations & treatments
Godsdienstige, gebruiklike & bygelowige praktyke
Religious, customary & superstitious practices
Skending van seksuele integriteit
Infringements of sexual integrity
Sport & Wedstryde
Sports & Contests
'Geldige toestemming'
'Valid consent'
Vermoë om toe te stem
Capacity to consent
Werklike toestemming
Geniune consent
Vrylik & vrywillig
Freely & voluntarily
Ingeligte toestemming
Informed consent
Ongeldig deur bedrog/misleiding
Vitiated by fraud/deception
Geldig ten tye van handeling
Operative at time of the act
Regmatige tugbevoegdheid
Lawful chastisement
Wie?
Who?
Regstelling
Correction
Matig & redelik
Moderate & reasonable
Redelike regmatige tugbevoegdheid en kinderregte
Reasonable disciplinary chastisement and children's rights
Ampelike bevoegdheid
Public authority
Statutêre Vrywaringsbepaling
Statutory indemnity provision
Konsulêre & Diplomatieke Immuniteit
Consular & Diplomatic Immunity
Gesag van hof
Authority of court
Regmatige arrestasie, visentering & beslaglegging
Lawful arrest, search or seizure
Om op te som...
To sum up...
Full transcript