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Transcript of WWII
Created a fascist Italy
- aggressive nationalistic movement
- nation is more important than the individual
- order can only be through a dictator
- anti-communist, promised protection of the middle class
Promised Italy's return
to the Roman Empire
IL DULCE "the leader"
- between 1902-1913 he was exiled
or imprisoned 7 times and always
managed to escape!
- USSR is communist
- created an industrial nation
- resistance = death
- responsible for the death of
8-10 mil people BEFORE WWII
- fought for Germany in WWI
- hated Allies and German gov. for Treaty of Versailles
National Socialist German
Workers' Party (NAZI)
- anti-Semitic & anti-communist
- Germans are master race
Arrested for trying to seize power
- Mein Kampf -
Great Depression put Nazis in Parliament
Hitler becomes their leader
& is given dictatorial powers
- badly affected by the Great Depression
- believed the only way to come back was to imperialize: Manchuria, Korea, China
- military controlled the government
- assassinated their prime minister
-ruled by military dictator, emperor no real power
- some people believed that arms manufacturers had actually tricked America into WWI
- NEUTRALITY ACTS
- prohibited the sale of arms to countries at war
- prohibited the sale to either side of a Civil War
- nonmilitary supplies allowed on a "CASH & CARRY" basis
what steps in the
led to WAR?
- Germany begins to defy the Treaty of Versailles
- Hitler wants the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia
- Munich Conference - appeasement to avoid war
- Britain & France realize war is INEVITABLE
HITLER INVADES POLAND
- nonaggression pact
- Stalin believed this was the best way to protect the USSR
- secret deal to divide up Poland
June - Oct 1940
Battle of Britain
How did the US become involved in WWII?
- neutrality acts revised, weapons can be bought on "cash & carry"
- instead of cash, FDR traded access to British land for US naval bases
- FDR argued that helping Britain was "vital to defense of the US"
- new law allows lending/leasing to countries detrimental to maintaining peace
- "great arsenal of democracy"
- FDR & Churchill created a charter which committed both nations to a postwar world of democracy, nonaggression, free trade, & freedom of the seas
-Churchill asked FDR to "stage an incident"
- 3 US destroyers targeted by German U-boats, 1 sank
- 8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 4 destroyers, 6 others
- 188 aircraft
- 2,403 Americans ; 1,178 injured
Just before 8 on the morning of December 7, 1941, hundreds of Japanese fighter planes attacked the American naval base at Pearl Harbor near Honolulu, Hawaii. The barrage lasted just two hours, but it was devastating
FDR asks Congress to declare war the next day
Senate: 82 to 0
House: 388 to 1
12/11: Italy & Germany delcare war on the US
fall of the
the battle of
what about the
Battle of the
Hitler's last attempt as the Allies
came closer & closer to him.
American lines bulge
(hence the name)
the death of
- destroyed 63% of city
- 80,000-120,000 died instantly
- 1000s die later from injury & radiation
- killed 35,000-74,000 people
4 Japanese carriers sank
362 Americans v. 3057 Japanese
why know this?
it's the TURNING POINT in the Pacific as this finally stopped Japan's advance.
"MIRACLE AT MIDWAY"
keeps Japan from invading Hawaii
German forces threating to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal were defeated by the British. This defeat prevented Hitler from gaining access to Middle Eastern oil supplies and attacking the Soviet Union from the south.
Hundreds of thousands of German soldiers were killed or captured in a months-siege of the Russian city of Stalingrad. This defeat prevented Germany from seizing the Soviet oil fields and turned the tide against Germany in the east.
each side lost
American & Allied troops under Eisenhower landed in German-occupied France on June 6, 1944.
Despite intense German opposition and heavy American casualties, the landings succeeded, and the liberation of western Europe from Hitler began.
- Beginning in Feb. 1945, if the Allies can take Iwo Jima, they will be close enough to start invading the Japanese HOME ISLANDS
- Japanese hid out in miles of tunnels & underground bunkers (including one in a volcano!)
- about 20,000 Japanese against 110,000 Marines
-American forces capture Iwo Jima on 3/26/1945
- 6,800+ Marines killed ; nearly all Japanese are either killed or missing
- secret program to build an atomic bomb
step up the bombing of Germany
goes from 2300+ tons every month for 3 years to 53,000 tons every MONTH
to attack Italy, the "soft underbelly of Europe
FDR & CHURCHILL STRATEGIZE:
Invasion of Sicily - Commanded by General Eisenhower w/General Patton heading ground forces (few casualties)
creates a crisis in the Italian government
My dear Duce, it's no longer any good. Italy has gone to bits. The soldiers don't want to fight anymore. At this moment, you are the most hated man in Italy.
The king then arrested Mussolini, and the new Italian gov began negotiations to surrentder to the Allies
Germany seizes northern Italy (inc Rome) and returned Mussolini to power
The Allies eventually win back Italy in late May 1944. The Italian campaign was one of the bloodiest in the war with more than 300,000 Allied casualties
1st clip: at 2:45
2nd: 20:00 - 24:15
3rd: 42:15 - end
"Defeat Hitler First strategy
most American military resources were targeted for Europe
Germany hoped to defeat the Soviet Union quickly, gain control of Soviet oil fields
tried to force Britain out of the war through bombing campaings & sub warfare before America's industrial & military strength could turn the tide.
in the Pacific
Following Pearl Harbor, Japan invaded the Philippines and Indonesia and planned to invade both Australian & Hawaii.
Japan hoped that American would then accept Japanese predominance in SE Asia & the Pacific, rather than conduct a bloody & costly war to reverse Japanese gains
American military strategy called for "island hopping" campaign, seizing islands closer and closer to Japan and using them as bases for air attacks on Japan, and for cutting off Japanese supplies through sub warefare against Japanese shipping.
US gov & industry forged a close working relationship to allocate resources effectively
Rationing was used to maintain supply of essential products to the war effort
War bonds and income tax were used for financing the war
Business retooled from peacetime to wartime production
ex: cars to tanks, fireworks to bullets
More women and minorities entered the labor force
Citizens volunteered in support of the war effort
the draft (selective service) was used to provide personnel for the military
increasingly participated in the workforce to replace men serving in the military
Rosie the Riveter
Typically participated in noncombat military roles
1. strong anti-Japanese prejudice on the West Coast
2. False belief that Japanese Americans were aiding the enemy
- internment affected Japanese populations along the West Coast. The Supreme Court upheld the government's right to act against J-Americans living on the West Coast of the US.
- A public apology was eventually issues by the US gov, and financial payment was made to survivors.
Media & Communications
The US gov maintained strict censorship of reporting of the war
Public morale and ad campaigns kept Americans focused on the war effort.
The entertainment industry produced movies, plays, and shows that boosted morale and patriotic support for the war effort as well as portrayed the enemy in stereotypical ways.
migrated to cities in search of jobs in war plants
campaigned for victory in war and equality at home. ex. TUSKEGEE AIRMEN
What events after WWI led to dictatorships and American neutrality?
"I'm afraid we have awoken a sleeping giant"
Rise of Totalitarianism
one party rules
resistance = death
largest surrender in American history
both victories brought US closer than ever to Japan
non-segregated units ; zoot suit riots
Navajo code talkers