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IMPORTANCE OF HYDRO POWER PROJECTS
Transcript of IMPORTANCE OF HYDRO POWER PROJECTS
IMPORTANCE OF HYDRO POWER
OUR PLAN INCLUDE THE CONSTRUCTION OF 5 MAJOR DAMS PLUS A LARGE NUMBER SMALL DAMS N HYDRO POWER PROJECTS
DAMS PROPOSED FOR CONSTRUCTION
• Diamer-Basha Dam
• Munda Dam
• Kalabagh Dam
• Akhori Dam
• Kurram Tangi Dam
DIAMER BASHA DAM PROJECT
Diamer-Bhasha Dam is an under-construction roller compacted concrete (RCC) dam on the River Indusin Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Its foundation stone was laid by Prime Minister Yusuf Raza Gilani of Pakistan on 18 October 2011. Upon completion, Diamer-Bhasha Dam would be the highest RCC dam in the world. The dam site is situated near a place called "Bhasha" in Gilgit-Baltistan's Diamer District, hence the name.
Maximum Height 270 m
Type Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC)
Gross capacity 7.3 MAF
Live capacity 6.4 MAF
POWER HOUSE(S): 2
Total installed capacity 4500 MW
No. of units 12, each of 375 MW
Average generation 16,500 Gwh/year
ESTIMATED COST US$ 6.5 Billion
completion time 12 years.
MUNDA DAM PROJECT
This project is proposed to be constructed on Swat River about 5 Km upstream of Munda Head Works in Mohmand Agency (FATA), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Munda Dam was envisaged to be constructed on Swat River about 5 km upstream of Munda Headworks in Mohmand Agency (FATA), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with gross storage of 1.29 million acre feet (MAF) to irrigate 15098 Acres of land and to generate 740 MW
Type of Dam Concrete Faced Rock fills Dam
Height of Dam 698.820 Ft.
Gross Storage 1.290 MAF
Live Storage 0.676 MAF
Dead Storage 0.314 MAF
Flood Storage 0.081 MAF
Power Houses 740 MW (Annual Energy 2407 GWh)
Command Area 16940 Acres
Project Cost Rs 119 Billion (US$ 1401 Million)
Construction Period 7 Years
KALABAGH DAM PROJECT
Gross Storage 7.9 MAF
Live Storage 6.1 MAF
Retention Level 915 Ft
Crest Elevation 940 Ft.
Maximum Height 260 Ft.
Length 11,000 Ft.
Overflow Spillway 1,070,000 Cusecs
Number of Units 8/12 Nos.
Installed Capacity 2,400/3,600 Mw (11,400 Gwh per Year)
Estimated Cost Us $ 6.1 Billion (September 2005)
Kalabagh Dam Project would be located on river Indus 100 miles south-west of Pakistan’s capital Islamabad.
AKHORI DAM PROJECT
Akhori Dam site is located near Akhori Village across Nandna Kas, a small tributary of Haro River in Attock District of Punjab, Akhori Reservoir is an off-channel storage, which will draw water from Siran Pocket of Tarbela Reservoir through conveyance channel.
Dam Type Earth & Rock fill
Height 400 feet
Gross Storage 7.6 MAF
Live Storage 6.00 MAF
Height 213 feet
Length 4.78 Miles
Bed Width 249.3ft (76 m)
Depth 32.8ft (10 m)
Hydel Power Potential 600 MW (2155 GWh/Annum)
Environmental and Resettlement
• No of Affectees 55800
• No of Houses 9270
• Land Submergence 65976 Acres
• Estimated Cost US$ 4.4 Billion
• Construction Period 5 Years
Gross Storage 0.914 MAF
Power 83 MW (331 GWh)
Live Storage 0.614 MAF
Height 295 Ft
Total Command Area 362,380 Acres
KURRAM TANGI DAM PROJECT
The proposed project site is located across Kurram River in North Wazirstan
Agency about 22 KM up-stream of Kurram Garhi Head works and 32 KM
North of Bannu City in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
The deficiency of electricity in our country is a concern for all. If steps aren't taken to help stabilize the situation, an enormous shortfall of electricity would be inevitable. Pakistan is facing power shortage. In a report it is claimed that Pakistan has faced 1000 to 2000 MW shortage of power. And it wills likely face 3000MW next year.
Pakistan has been facing an unprecedented energy crisis since the last few years. The problem becomes more severe during summers. However, this winter was no different. During the peak crisis there was a power outage of 3-4 hours every day. Those without generators and UPS faced tremendous problems. The prices of both continued to increase due to a sharp increase in their demand.
Almost two years ago the then WAPDA chairman who happens to be a caretaker minister admitted that WAPDA cannot meet the current demand for electricity. It’s surprising that such a senior and experienced person took so long to find this out. On top of that the government which talked about Pakistan’s supposedly booming economy failed to understand the gravity of the situation. General Musharraf (R) after becoming Chief Executive used to talk about building dams especially Kalabagh Dam. This was one of the many promises he failed to keep. Even after that very few power plants have been set up to meet the demand for electricity. During the second government of Benazir some independent power plants were set up. Had they not been setup then we would have had a much bigger crisis with life almost coming to a standstill.
The addressed problem has no quick solutions but measures for the future can be taken. First of all we have to realize the importance of these Dams. In coming years the shortage of energy is going to more than 3000 MW so we have to utilize our natural resources by making Dams on the blessed sites since hydro energy is the cheapest way to overcome this crisis.
HYDEL ENEGRY AND ITS CRISIS IN PAKISTAN
Rehabilitation of Irrigation System
• Remodeling of Barrages
• De-silting of canals
• Canal lining
• Increasing Population
• Decreasing Storage Capacity
• Sustainability of Reservoir
Small dams to capture seasonal runoff
• Develop Small Reservoirs
• Develop Hydropower Potential
• Conserve Water
• Adopt modern Irrigation Techniques
Implementation of Mega Projects
i. Lack of Awaren
iv. Strengthening of Execution &
Monitoring of projects
Indus Waters Treaty
Indus basin treaty on 19 September 1960
India closed supplies from eastern rivers Ravi, Beas & Sutlej in April 1948
DAMS - 2
• Mangla Dam
• Tarbela Dam
BARRAGES - 5
LINK CANALS - 8
Another problem associated with excessive irrigation on poorly drained soils is waterlogging. This occurs (as is common for salinization) in poorly drained soils where water can't penetrate deeply.
The raised water table results in the soils becoming waterlogged
The raised water table results in the soils becoming waterlogged
Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water. It is a general term used to describe the levels of different salts such as sodium chloride, magnesium and calcium sulfates, and bicarbonates.
PROBLEM DUE TO WATER SHORTAGE
• Lack of Awareness.
• Rising Imbalance between supply and demand leading to inter provincial tension
• Misuse of Water leads to Environmental Degradation.
Energy Crisis in Pakistan is one of the severe challenges the country is facing today. Electricity, gas, water, fuel is essential part of our daily life and its outage has severely affected the economy and overall living of ours. Thousands have lost their jobs, businesses; our daily life has become miserable. Pakistan is currently facing up to 18 hours of electricity outage a day, is expected to face more if not dealt with in time.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the nature of energy crisis and to propose some short-term as well as long-term solutions to this problem.
Our study finds some major wholes in our system if they are covered up we can not only overcome the deficiency of electricity in our systems but also we can be able to export it to our neighboring countries.
Water flowing in the rivers has kinetic energy. One they are used
to drive the turbine and produce electricity the power generated
as hydel energy. Power produced by the turbine depends on
quantity of water flowing/minute and the head of water available.
Mostly river flows by melting glaciers on High Mountain.
One the water starts flowing in the valley its changes
its head very rapidly. This energy can be converted into
Two methods are normally used:
In case of Dams the water flow is restricted by
the making a huge storage device and the head
of water is increased, the water then is allows to
flow by means of gates and pass through the
turbine, the head of reservoir level is maintained
to provide uniform power and the water stored in
the season additionally is used for irrigation
purpose in the dry season.
Run of the river projects
In the run of river project the water is diverted through the tunnel and once it gain the head allowed to fall and pass through the turbine and back too river. The water in these projects is continuously flowing and not being stored.
Geographical situation is paramount importance in choosing the suitable site for
the hydel project and it evolves a very serious time and money consuming study.
Once a site is located further detailed feasibility study is required before preceding
any serious effort to start the work.
The feasibility study should include following field work.
1: Detailed Mapping of the area.
2: River flow data.
3: Weather data contain Temperature, Pressures, Rain Humidity.
4: Water sampling and testing.
5: Environmental study.
6: Social impact.
7: Identification of stake holders of the area.
The energy crisis starts from 1990 and still Pakistan is in the crisis
of these all as before. The latest and perhaps the most troublesome
crisis faced by the Pakistani nation these days is the shortage in
supply of electricity. The country is facing a huge electric power
crisis these days. Though it has been more than a year since when
the country is facing this crisis, but till now no proper solution has
been made to this problem neither any proper planning has come
into existence since the symptoms and begging of this short supply
of electricity. While rolling blackouts or load shedding as it is
locally known has always been a staple of daily life in Pakistan,
the problem has become acute in the last couple of years.
This crisis appears insurmountable in the near or even
long-term future, unless proper understanding and
correct implementation is undertaken on priority
basis. At present total power production capacity in
the country is about 19,500 MW, out of which Hydel
Power is only 6,500 MW, balance of 13,000 MW is
thermal either using Natural Gas or Furnace Oil.
Small capacity of 450 MW is Nuclear and only
150 MW is through coal.
It is very important to understand the consequence of the prevailing
situation. Current price of furnace oil is about Rs.49,000 per ton,
which amounts up to Rs.49/- per kg. On an average one kg of furnace
oil produces 3.8 kWh of electricity. Thus, the cost of furnace oil for
generating one unit of electricity is about Rs.13. On top of this the
fixed cost of a thermal plant works out to be about Rs.3 per unit.
Therefore, one unit (kWh) of the electricity produced by all thermal
plants using furnace oil is Rs.16 per unit. According to WAPDA/IPP
agreement, the private power producers will charge WAPDA the
actual fuel cost for which they have a direct contract with PSO. As
we all know that WAPDA tariff charged from the consumers is about
Rs.5 per unit (kWh).
1. Diamer Basha Dam Project
2. Diamer-Basha Hydropower Project to Major
3. Kurram Tangi Dam Multipurpose Project
4. Tarbela 4th Extension
5. Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
6. Kohala Hydropower Project
7.Kohala Hydropower Project
8. Munda Dam Project
9. Kalabagh Dam
10. Bunji Hydropower Project
11. Transmission Scheme for Bunji
12. Keyal Khwar Hydropower
13. Golen Gol Hydropower Project
14. Dasu Hydropower Project
15. Transmission Scheme for Dasu Hydropower Project
16. Lower Spat Gah Hydropower Project
17. Lower Palas Valley Hydropower Project
18. Akhori Dam Project
19. Thakot Hydropower Project
20. Pattan Hydropower Project
21. Phandar Hydropower Project
22. Basho Hydropower Project
23. Lawi Hydropower Project
24. Harpo Hydropower Project
25. Yulbo Hydropower Project
26. Suki Kinari Hydropower Project
27. Shyok Dam Project
28. Trappi Hydropower Project
29. Matiltan Hydropower Project
30. Mahl Hydropower Project
31. Gulpur Hydropower Project
32. Kotli Hydropower Project
33. Transmission Scheme for Neelum-Jhelum
34. Ultra Mega Power Project/Park
35. Rehabilitation of Tarbela, Mangla & Warsak
Hydel Power Stations
Should hydroelectric power be encouraged
I believe the answer to be a cautious ‘Yes’.
Although it is feasible for large scale hydroelectric power projects to be developed in our country which is a great opportunity for us. We can easily overcome our energy crisis by building the above discuss projects. So we have to motivate our government and make them realize how vital these projects are.
The benefits of electricity are undisputable for both economic and social development, and if the balance is between providing electricity that reduces the human mortality rate and protecting the environment, the former must be chosen. To choose the latter is arrogance on our part, sitting in well-lit comfy buildings, legislating for an effect that will never harm us.
These projects would not only help stabilise electricity tariff by
increasing ratio of low-cost hydel electricity in the national
grid but also rid dependence on imported oil.
Economic growth of Pakistan is not possible without resolving water and energy crises. “Petrol and power prices will be equal in future and implementation on the 5 Dam Plan is inevitable for the survival of Pakistan
There was a need to educate the public as well as leaders regarding benefits of building dams including Kalabagh dam for which facts and figures were required from Water & Power experts. Mr. Bashir Malik said that 8% of the total available water resources of Pakistan is used for domestic while 92% for irrigation.
Pakistan is facing a major energy crisis due to huge difference between demand and supply of electricity. The country is facing a serious shortfall of 4500MW to 5500MW per day at peak hours. This shortage has paralyzed our industry, commerce and everyday life. Basically the issue is because of corrupt and unstable governments, mafia groups, mismanagement in public sector, irresponsible bureaucracy, lack of political will and negative power politics in Pakistan. It also shows failure of policies and practices of our successive governments. It seems there is no proper planning to overpower the giant of energy crisis. Proper attention has not been given to the soaring demand for energy that may be 44% over the next decade
No special efforts have been made to generate required energy sources. It’s high time Pakistan explored all possible energy resources for its growing energy demand. The uninterrupted supply of energy can change the destiny of the nation. The consumption of energy in domestic, industrial, trade, agriculture and commercial sector is increasing day by day. The rising demand of the energy and increasing sale of electric and electronic appliance may lead a part of the country into darkness. Pakistan can produce approximately 15,000MW to 19, 800MW electricity per day in the current session. The long and short term plans for the production of the energy should be based on several resources such as natural gas, thermal energy, hydropower, coal, solar energy, nuclear power plants, waste, wind, and other useful energy sources. These plans and projects should be opted by Federal as well as Provincial governments. Pakistan should not put all her eggs in one basket.