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Michelle Signore

on 19 March 2015

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Transcript of Crime

What do you think of when you hear the word crime?
Violent Crime
(National Crime Victimization Survey)
Crime As A Social
Media coverage of crime includes:
news media
real-crime television shows
Types of Violent Crime
Crime and
Criminal Justice

By Michelle,Arnold,and Brian
Crime As A Social Problem
Problems with Official Statistics
Types of Violent Crime
Rape- An act of violence in which sex is used as a weapon against a powerless victim.
Rape follows certain patterns in terms of gender, age, race, and region of the country.
Most rapists are male; most victims are female.
Most rapists tend to be under age twenty-five; their typical victims are also under age twenty-five.
Most rapists are white.
Most rapes occur in the South.
Although reporting of rape has increased, about 60% of rape and other sexual assaults go unreported.
Types of Rape
Types of Violent Crime
Gang Violence- Criminal and non political acts of violence committed by a group of people who regularly engage in criminal activity against innocent people.
Many gangs are sophisticated and well organized.
All use violence to control neighborhoods and boost their illegal money- making activities.
Gangs are composed primarily of young males of the same race or ethnicity.
Gang Violence Cont.
Types of Violent Crime
Aggravated assault - The unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily harm.This type of assault involves the display of- or the threat to use- a weapon or other means likely to produce death or great bodily harm.
Most aggravated assaults are committed in the South and most offenders are white males.
Media coverage is extensive and may contribute to our widespread perception that crime has increased dramatically in this country. However, the rate of serious and violent crime has fallen significantly during the last 10 years.
Although crime has fallen, it is still a significant social problem because it endangers people's lives, property, and sense of well-being.
Behavior that violates the criminal law and is punishable by fine, jail term, or other negative sanctions.
Criminal law is divided into two major categories:
Misdemeanors- relatively minor crimes that are punishable by a fine or less than a year in jail. (ex. public drunkenness, shoplifting and traffic violations)
Felonies- more serious crimes that are punishable by more than a year's imprisonment or even death. (ex. rape aggravated assault)
Reflection on the leading source of information on crimes reported in the U.S,which is the
Uniform Crime Report
It is published annually by the FBI and is based on data provided by federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies.
The problem is the number of crimes that are reported is not necessarily the number of crimes committed.
The Bureau of Justice statistics conducts an NCVS survey of 100,000 randomly selected households to identify victims whether the crime was reported or not.
These surveys indicate that the number of crimes committed is substantially higher than the number of crimes reported.
Violent Crime consists of actions involving force or the thread of force against others.
Types of violent crime include: murder, rape, gang violence, aggravated assault, and robbery.
One violent crime occurs every 24 seconds
Murder- The unlawful intentional killing of one person by another.
Types of Murder
Capital murder, manslaughter, mass murder, serial murder
Forcible Rape- the act of forcing sexual intercourse on an adult of legal age against her will.
Statutory Rape- refers to sexual intercourse with a person, who is under the legal age of consent as established by state law, which usually varies between ages sixteen and eighteen.
Acquaintance Rape- forcible sexual activity that meets the legal definition of rape and involves people who first meet in a social setting.
There are 20,000 violent street gangs, they are composed of: motorcycle gangs and prison gangs.
There are nearly 1 million members who are criminally active in the U.S.
Illegal money making activities they involve themselves in include: armed robbery, assault, auto theft, drug and gun trafficking, extortion, fraud, identity theft, home invasions, and murder.
Types of Violent Crime
Robbery- The taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care custody or control of a person or persons by force or threat of violence and or by putting the victim in fear.
Robbery arrests are higher for men then they are women.
African- Americans have a higher rate of arrest for robbery.
One murder occurs every 35 minutes.
Rape occurs every six minutes
One robbery occurs every minute.
One aggravated assault occurs every 39 seconds.
Property Crime
Property crime is the taking of money or property from another without force, the threat of force, or the destruction of property and is experienced more by low income households rather than high income households.
Most of the crimes committed are property crimes.
Types of Property Crime
Larceny Theft- The unlawful taking or attempting to take property with the exception of motor vehicles and is the most frequently committed property crime.
Most offenders are white, however African- Americans are over represented in arrest.
Arrest rates for male and female offenders are closer with males committing just slightly more crimes than women.
Types of Property Crime
Burglary- The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft.
Burglary is divided into three categories: forcible entry, unlawful entry, and forcible entry attempts.
Most offenders are white males.

Types of Property Crime
Motor vehicle theft- The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle, not including, farm equipment, airplanes, motorboats, jet skis, and other types of construction or recreational vehicles.
Four basic motives for auto-theft are
joyriding, transportation, commission of another crime, and profit.
Most offenders are white males.

Types of Property Crime
Identity theft- Using another individuals personal information to commit fraud or theft.
Poses a serious problem both in the U.S and globally.
Vast amounts of personal information, mishandling of such information, and computer-savy criminals led to the prevalence of identity theft.
Most identity theft victims find law enforcement agencies, slow to respond, and resolution may take more than a year.
Occupational Crime(White Collar)
Occupational (White collar) Crime refers to illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or normal business activity.
Some researches refer to this type of crime as occupational fraud.
Banking/ financial services, manufacturing, and government/ public administration sectors are the most vulnerable to occupational crimes.
Occupational Crime Cont.
There are three major types of Occupational fraud:
Asset Misappropriation refers to to the stealing or misusing of an organization resources an accounts for almost 90 % of occupational frauds.
Corruption Schemes like bribery, extortion, and conflict of interest, occur when employees use their influence in business transactions in a way the violates their duty to the employer for the purpose of obtaining benefits for themselves.
Financial Statement Fraud refers to schemes that involve the intentional misstatement or omission of relevant information in the organizations financial reports.
Corporate Crime
Corporate Crime refers to illegal acts committed by corporate employees on behalf of the corporation and with it's support.
There are seven different kinds: Corporate Fraud, Securities and Commodities Fraud, Healthcare Fraud, Mortgage Fraud, Insurance Fraud, Mass Marketing Fraud, Money Laundering.
Organized Crime
Organized Crime- A business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit.
These illegal enterprises include drug trafficking, prostitution, lone-sharking, money laundering, and large scale theft such as truck high jacking.

Organized Crime Cont.
Some law enforcement in government officials are corrupted through bribery, campaign contributions, favors intended to buy them off.
Juvenile Delinquency
Juvenile Delinquency involves a violation of law or the commission of a status offense by a young person under a specific age.
Juvenile arrests are decreasing.
The highest juvenile arrests rates are for arson, vandalism, burglary, robbery, and motor-vehicle theft.
Most juvenile arrests are male, and the majority is African-American.
Juveniles are processed through the juvenile justice system, which is based on the notion of deminished moral culpability on the part of the juvenile and is comprised of three major hearings, detention , adjudication, and dispositional.
Types of Crime
Violent Crime
Property Crime
Occupational (white collar) Crime
Corporate Crime
Organized Crime

Biological Explanations of Crime
One of the earliest biological explanations came from the
positivist school
. Cesare Lombroso believed that some people are born criminals or atavists.
Somatotype theory
discusses that people who are muscular, gregarious, aggressive, and assertive are more prone to delinquency and criminal behavior than people who are fat, soft, introverted, thin, wiry and sensitive.
Some contemporary approaches suggest that violence is a natural and inevitable part of human behavior that can only be controlled by social organization.

Psychological Explanations
Sociological Explanations
Robert Merton's Strain Theory
Control Theory
Conflict Theorists
Symbolic Interactionist
Symbolic Interactionists
Criminal Justice System
Criminal Justice System Cont.
Functionalist/ Conservative Solutions
Conflict Approach Solutions
Symbolic Interactionists
Date Rape
White Collar Crime
Violent Crime
Date Rape
Gang Violence
Psychological explanations of criminal behavior focus on individual characteristics.
Some researchers examine abnormal personality traits in criminals and delinquents.
Others have investigated the effects of social learning and positive and negative reinforcement.
Some psychological explanations link intelligence and crime and they seem to be the most enduring.
Another explanation focuses on the link between aggression and crime.
Two of the main focuses of the functionalist perspective on crime and delinquency are the strain theory and the control theory.
Robert Merton's strain theory proposes that people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they cannot reach because they do not have access to a culturally approved means of achieving those goals.
Control Theory seeks to ascertain why people do not participate in deviant behavior.
Some people who are constantly pushed toward deviant behavior, who do turn to crime have outer containments or inner containments.
The best known control theory is
social bond theory
, which asserts that the probability of delinquency and crime increases when a person's social bonds are weak and peers promote antisocial values and violent behavior.
Conflict theorists explain criminal behavior in terms of power differentials and economic inequality.
According to Austin Turk, crime is not a behavior, but a status acquired when those with authority to create/ enforce rules, apply those rules to others.
The radical- critical conflict approach argues that social institutions make up a superstructure that legitimizes the class structure and maintains the capitalists' superior position in it.
People commit different types of crime based on their class position.
Symbolic interactionists emphasize that criminal behavior is learned through everyday interactions with others.
Differential association theory
- people have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they have frequently associate with people who tend toward deviance rather than conformity.
Labeling theory
- delinquents and criminals are people who have been successfully labeled as such by others.
Primary deviance
- the initial act of rule breaking in which the individual does not internalize the delinquent or criminal self-concept.
Secondary deviance
- occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior.
The criminal justice system is a network of organization involved in law enforcement, including the police, the courts, and the prisons.
The police are the most visible link in the criminal
justice system because they are responsible for initially arresting and jailing people.
Four factors that influence whether or not police will make an arrest are:
The nature of the alleged offense of problem
The quality of available evidence
The age, race, and sex of the alleged offender.
The level of deference shown to police officers.
Criminal courts- responsible for determining the guilt or innocence of people who have been accused of committing a crime.
Imprisonment, probation, and parole are mechanisms of punishment based on retribution, social protection, rehabilitation, and deterrence.
Some functionalist approaches suggest that it is important to identify the social pressures that result in high rates of deviance and crime if we are to reduce the number of crimes that are committed.
One way to reduce crime is through community policing.
Conflict approach believes it would be necessary to reduce power differentials and/ or economic inequality in society to solve the problem of crime.
Some branches of conflict theorizing and liberal political analysts look at race as an important variable that must be addressed in reducing crime . To reduce crime racism must be reduced.
Symbolic Interactionists make us aware that any behavior that is learned, including criminal behavior, can be unlearned.
The way to reduce crime is to teach people the importance of law-abiding behavior and to engage in other endeavors that help to modify and eliminate criminal behavior.
If most of the crimes that are committed property crimes, why do so many people fear that they will be victims of violent crimes?
page 209 in textbook
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