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Maria Montessori

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Cally Small

on 20 September 2015

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Transcript of Maria Montessori

Maria Montessori
Group 5

Team Members
Content Researcher #1: Jodi Hileman
Content Researcher #2: Allison O’Neil
Graphic Illustrator/Layout: Cally Small
Enhancer/Narrator: Kayde Geisbauer
Guided Question
“How did Maria Montessori view subject matter?”

“Education is a natural process spontaneously carried out by the human individual and is acquired not by listening to words but by experiences in the environment.”

-Maria Montessori
(Nobel Peace Prize)

The Montessori approach was developed without preconceived ideas as to how best to aid the child in their journey to adulthood. Instead the ideas were based on the observation of children in diverse cultures and in many countries.

Within each of these planes the child or adolescent has specific ‘sensitivities’ or ‘windows of opportunities’ to acquire a particular human trait. (Absorbent Montessori Minds, n.d.)

1. Development of the self as an individual
2. Development of the social being
3. One's sense of self
4. Becoming a specialized explorer

1. Self as an individual being (0-6 years old)
a. Parent involvement
b. Music, Reading, Manipulating objects
c. Sensory learning
d. Language development
2. Social being (6-12 years old)
a. Subjects and Moral learning
b. Exploration
c. Community field trips
3. One’s sense of self (12-18 years old)
a. Economic participation
b. Project based learning
c. Job exploration
4. Specialized explorer (18-24 years old)
a. Continuum of learning
b. Adulthood
c. Self awareness and Responsibility
Writing and Reading:
“The child who looks, recognizes, and touches the letters in the manner of writing, prepares himself simultaneously for reading and writing.” (Montessori, 1912, page 266)
“Writing develops in the little child with facility and spontaneity, analogous to the development of spoken language–which is a motor translation of audible sounds. Reading, on the contrary, makes part of an abstract intellectual culture, which is the interpretation of ideas from graphic symbols, and is only acquired later on.” (Montessori, 1912, page 267)
Montessori believed in the philosophical study of writing - study the individual doing the writing, not the writing itself.
1. The actual muscular movement of writing
2. Manipulating the writing instrument itself
“Touching the letters and looking at them at the same time, fixes the image more quickly through the co-operation of the senses. Later, the two facts separate; looking becomes reading; touching becomes writing.” (Montessori, 1912, page 260)
Specific grade level expectations are determined by Montessori in The Montessori Method
Numeration comes naturally to children as early as age three
Students learn to read numbers with wooden blocks, just as they learn to read letters
Students practice making change with money made of cardboard
Rods are used to practice measurement, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division
Children should spontaneously want to discover sides and angles of geometric shapes. Those under the age of six should not be forced to do so
“It is so closely related to daily life that it interests all children intensely.” (Montessori, 1912, page 326)
Children should not be forced to perform commands or movements that are unnatural to the body. Rather, it is beneficial for them to practice muscular education that aids normal development and physiological movements. This will help children perform everyday tasks such as tying shoelaces, dressing and undressing, buttoning clothes, etc.
Muscular education can be practiced both with and without gymnasium apparatuses
In Educational Gymnastics, students practice movements common in everyday life, such as planting crops, carrying objects from one point to another, opening and closing gates, etc.
In Respiratory Gymnastics, students are taught breathing techniques. This can also help with speech
“In the education of little children Itard's educative drama is repeated: we must prepare man, who is one among the living creatures and therefore belongs to nature, for social life, because social life being his own peculiar work, must also correspond to the manifestation of his natural activity.” (Montessori, 1912, page 153)
This is work done by hand in the form of art
Objective is to accomplish a determinate work which enriches the world
Clay vases are significant because many cultures and civilizations used them. Once students learn to make the clay vase from pottery wheel, they can use their own inspiration and imagination to adapt their own versions of the vase
Bricks made in ovens are also important as they signify the construction of houses and buildings students see each day
Two Diverse Forms of Movement in Writing:
Content References:
Absorbent Montessori Minds. (n.d.). Retrieved September 12, 2016, from http://www.absorbentminds.co.uk/acatalog/What_is_Montessori_.html
Johnson, E. (2014). Nurturing the Love of Learning: Montessori Education for Preschool years. Retrieved September 12, 2015 from
Montessori, M. (1912). The Montessori Method. Retrieved from http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/montessori/method/method.html
Believed students must create instruments as well as music
Stringed instruments, drums and bells together make up “trio of classic instruments of humanity” (Montessori, 1912, page 207)
Children are sensitive to musical rhythm, not musical tone
Dancing can educate a child’s muscular sense, which develops muscle memory as well as other forms of sensory memory
Montessori for the Early Childhood Years
Writing and Reading (Continued)...
Students do not naturally write in straight lines but rather in curves
Teach children to prepare for the act of writing by using their fingers to form letters of the alphabet
Used wooden blocks of alphabet (vowels painted blue, consonants painted red) for students to touch and manipulate. Eventually they will demonstrate the flow of writing with their fingers
Four Key Developmental Planes
in the Journey to Adulthood
Exploring
The Prepared Environment:
Ordering
Manipulating
Imagination
Repetition
Auto-Education
Freedom to Choose
Mixed Age Groups
Communication
Adaptation
Self-Correction
American Montessori Society (2015). Retrieved from https://amshq.org/Montessori-Education
Montessori, M., MD, Montessori Method, Montessori schools, Montessori, Italy, India, Nobel Peace Prize (MONTESSORI, Maria Montessori, MD, Montessori Method, Montessori schools, Montessori, Italy, India, Nobel Peace Prize) http://www.montessori.edu/maria.html
Picture References:
A Biography of Dr Maria Montessori (A Biography of Dr Maria Montessori) https://montessori.org.au/montessori/biography.htm
Fellowship Wesleyan Chruch http://www.fellowshipwesleyan.org/childrens-ministries/
Montessori’s view on writing
versus
reading:
Reading with Cursive Letters - Sage Montessori Charter School - Albuquerque New Mexico from http://sagecharterschoolabq.org/schedule/students_009/
To practice holding a pencil, Montessori had students use both index and middle fingers to trace letters to develop motor skills. She then had them trace wooden letters while holding a stick to premaster writing with a pencil
The wooden letters used to teach writing were also used to teach reading. Students were exposed to seeing and manipulating the letters of the alphabet. Each letter also had a corresponding picture which began with that letter
The Montessori Environment (The Environment) http://swc2.hccs.edu/ankenbauer/Kindergarten_Environment/Kindergarten_Environment.html
Teaching Math:
Montessori Education Transcends Time - The Integrity of Montessori Education in the 21st Century | LittleStar Magazine Online
http://www.internationalschool.info/montessori-education-transcends-time-the-integrity-of-montessori-education-in-the-21st-century/
Developmental Planes Continued…..
Muscular Education/Gymnastics:
“The gymnasium, therefore, offers a field for the most varied exercises, tending to establish the co-ordination of the movements common in life, such as walking, throwing objects, going up and down stairs, kneeling, rising, jumping, etc.” (Montessori, 2012, page 144)
Nature in Education:
Children should be exposed to nature through agriculture
Plants, insects, and animals, all a part of our natural surroundings, are to be experienced
Children develop virtues such as patience, inspiration, and appreciation of nature
Watching something in nature develop/grow/bloom is a reward in itself
“It has been understood, through the diffusion of marine and Apennine colonies, that the best means of invigorating the child is to immerse him in nature.” (Montessori, 1912, page 154)
Manual Labor:
“Thus the children learn to appreciate the objects and constructions which surround them, while a real manual and artistic labor gives them profitable exercise.” (Montessori, 1912, page 167)
Musical Education:
“The teacher who, bending toward them [the students], gathering them about her, and leaving them free to stay or go, touches the chords, in a simple rhythm, puts herself in communication with them, in relation with their very souls.” (Montessori, 1912, page 207)
Montessori, M. (1912). The Montessori Method. Retrieved from http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/montessori/method/method.html
Homeschool Resource Center Events from http://myemail.constantcontact.com/Beginning-Strings-Classes--violin--viola--cello--for-Homeschoolers.html?soid=1104150309328&aid=bzt6hZ_0GQI
Montessori, D. (2012). Montessori education - "An assist to life." Retrieved September 13, 2015, from http://www.montessori-schools.com/Programs-PreSchool.htm
Live Well Minstries (2012). Retrieved September 11, 2015, from http://livewellministries.org/2012/12/little-life-words-magnify-the-lord/
Jones, E. (2014). Montessori home inspiration. Retrieved September 19, 2015, from http://www.howwemontessori.com/how-we-montessori/2013/02/some-montessori-home-inspiration-.html
Montessori, A. (2015). Sophie Hula Hooping. Retrieved September 12, 2015, from http://www.tmaonline.org/apps/video/watch.jsp?v=62457
Montessori, N. (n.d.). Hanukkah Themed Montessori Activities. Retrieved September 11, 2015, from http://montessoritraining.blogspot.com/2012/12/hanukkah-montessori-activities-8-days-crafts-snacks-culture.html
One Eye Publications. (2014). Retrieved September 11, 2015, from http://oneeyepublications.com/violinkids/
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