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North American Colonies.
Transcript of North American Colonies.
First permanent English settlement
Jamestown was the first English settlement that became permanent.
Established in 1607
The Virginia Company Of London was granted a charter by James I to explore the Americas. In late 1606 Englishmen set sail to establish a colony in the new world.
The 3 G's
The Virginia Company set sail to the new world in hopes to find God, glory, and most importantly...Gold. They wrongly thought that Virginia would have heaps of gold all over the land. The Englishmen that set sail were mostly young sons from wealthy Englishmen who wouldn't inherit a cent. They came to the new world with the intent to become rich quickly, only to find disappointment and no gold.
Unfit living conditions
The land in Virginia was swampy, mosquito infested, hot, and humid. The Englishmen who populated Jamestown were not the ideal men to have when trying to survive. They had no hunting, gathering, or woodworking skills. A large portion of the population died of either, malaria or starvation.
John Smith saved Jamestown from early devastation. He trained the settlers to work, and farm. He simply said "he who shall not work, shall not eat" the discipline that he implemented on lazy aristocratic englishman not only saved their lives, but also the colony.
The Virginia Company was a joint stock company shared amongst a few wealthy English men. They were the ones who sought the charter from King James I and who funded Jamestown in an attempt to make a profit.
John Rolfe married Pocahontas and with this union brought a time of peace between the Native American's and the people of Jamestown.
House Of Burgess
The House Of Burgess was created in 1618. It was the first legislative assembly with elected representatives.
Though originally no gold was ever found in Jamestown. Their own kind of gold sprouted from the ground. In 1614 the first shipment of Virginia tobacco was sold in London. John Rolfe developed a strain of tobacco that was more pleasant to the palette of the British and began shipment of the plant to England which quickly sprouted to become a cash crop. Suddenly Jamestown's history of poverty, starvation, and cannibalism became a thing of the past.
Virginia belonged in the southern colonies of America.
By: Paulina Gonzalez
The Massachusetts bay company gave the charter for the Massachusetts bay colony in 1629. Ships departed from England in April 1630, arriving sometime in June carrying more than 700 colonist.
An extremist group of puritans called separatist did just what the name suggest, and separated from England. They were very critical of the Church of England saying that it still retained too may Catholic elements. They were also critical of the way that the British behaved saying that they were not keeping the Sabbath holy. They wanted to either destroy the church or separate from it. They fled to Holland in order to worship how they saw fit but were unwelcome after a while and fled to the new world.
Anne Hutchinson held a popular gathering at her house where she commented on recent sermons and spoke out against the belief of predestination along with the sermons of some preachers. This resulted in her banishment of the colony where she then headed to Rhode Island in search of religious freedom.
John Cotton was a preacher in Boston. He was Anne Hutchinson's main inspiration to her outspoken nature. She criticized many ministers in the colony but celebrated Cotton's. He was a big part in the Antinomian controversy because a lot of his followers seemed to have not only unorthodox ideologies but thought to be radical for that time.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony was the first colony to provide an education to its settlers. This proved to be very successful and benefited the colony greatly.
Massachusetts relied on trading of fur, fish and , lumber to support its colony.
The economic slump in 1620s as well as Charles I's anti-puritan policy brought John Winthrop to the Massachusetts bay. He was then elected governor by the other members of the company. He was elected governor 12 times between 1631-1648. He was felt very strongly against representative governments and had a very high intolerance towards anyone who was not a puritan. Historians describe him as a very tyrannical ruler as well as a utopian visionary.
William Bradford was another leader of the Massachusetts Bay colony. He was generally well liked. He served as both a governor and a religious leader in the Massachusetts Bay colony. He signed the Mayflower Compact and his journal have served of great historic knowledge of the pilgrims.
The Massachusetts Bay colony was essentially independent from England. They had a representative government, however only church members were allowed to have a say in it. Non-puritans were allowed to reside in the colony but they had no say in what occurred.
Boston was chosen to be the Colony's capital by John Winthrop.
Religious Society Of Friends
Or Quakers were the people who populated most of Pennsylvania. In search of economic opportunities as well as religious tolerance Quakers migrated to the Americas.
Pennsylvania was founded by an affluent Quaker named William Penn. He obtained a land grant which allowed him to run a liberal government while simultaneously making a profit.
Penn was given the land grant by the king in 1681. The king was indebted to Penn's father and after Penn's father died the king gave Penn the land grant to honor his diseased father.
Benjamin Franklin came to Pennsylvania in 1720. Franklin helped write the Declaration of Independence and was one of the Founding Fathers of America.
Pennsylvania's main export was grain unlike most colonies who made profits off tobacco, indigo, or rice.
Pennsylvania was a very liberal colony. They didn't have slave labor, there was no dispute against religion unlike most colonies, there was a representative assembly. They had little restrictions on their settlers.
Because of the Quakers peaceful nature they got along well with the Native Americans. Some even had close relationships with them. They wouldn't push them out of their land instead they would pay the for it. However, some of the immigrants that moved to Pennsylvania didn't care much about the Quaker lifestyle and would treat Native Americans poorly.
Because of the lax rules and appeal to seemingly every culture the Quaker colony developed quite quickly. Pennsylvania's population and wealth spiked in 1681-1700s. The only colonies that were larger than Pennsylvania were Virginia and Massachusetts.
Diverse ethnic and religious groups
The colonies liberalism was a great aspect for many people seeking religious freedom. They did not require you to become a Quaker they lived peacefully with everyone. Pennsylvania was also the most advertised colony which drew in a high amount of people.
Penn only resided in the colony for four years. Despite his hopes for the colony he was never really appreciated and governors constantly wanted more political control. Penn was arrested several times for treason and was eventually imprisoned to die at a debtors prison.
Georgia was founded in 1732 by James Oglethorpe.
Motivation for Founding
James Oglethorpe received a charter from King George II to establish a new colony. Georgia was located between South Carolina and Florida. The reason for Georgia was to serve as a place where debtors in prison could reside and it served as a barrier against Spanish expansion from Florida.
Georgia was part of the southern colonies.
Originally Georgia had a ban on slavery that was implemented by the founders of Georgia and the trustees. Many settlers were unhappy with the ban and after it became an official royal colony the ban was lifted.
The economy of Georgia came mostly from plantations that grew both indigo, and rice. The picking of cotton did not come until after the cotton gin was invented in 1793.
Colonial Georgia was established as a barrier from Spanish Colonies in Florida and farther south. They also established Georgia, in a way, to claim the land before the Spanish had a chance to.
Georgia also served as "the great social experiment" by having debtors who would instead be in jail be transferred over to Georgia and work off their debts. They were allotted a plot of land and were able to live a relatively free life as long as they followed the guidelines of the colony.
1) No rum, brandy, or spritz. However, beer, wine, and ale were allowed
2) No lawyers, James Oglethorpe felt as if each man should be able to speak for themselves.
3) No black slaves.
4) No Catholics. Everyone else had freedom of religion.
Last of the 13 colonies.
Georgia was the last of the 13 colonies to be settled.
Georgia was a royal colony meaning that it was under british rule. However appointed officials were responsible to reigning the entire colony.
The people of Georgia got up very early in the morning, and went to bed very late at night. They spent a large majority of their time working in the fields until slavery came. They would farm as much as they could in the summer to have plenty of food to keep them through the winters.
Maryland is a southern colony
Mostly independent from England. Colonist were allowed to govern themselves. They had a representative government where the freeman elected representatives to govern the colony. The colonist were loyal to Calvert not the king, Calvert was granted more power than most in colonial governors; he could declare wars, print money, and create an army.
Ralph Crouch was the first to create an elementary school in St. Mary's at first everyone was entitled to free education later only the wealthy elite were entitled to it.
The colony of Maryland was established in 1632. Named after Henrietta Maria.
The many waterways in Maryland allowed for easy communication with England and provided a constant supply of food to the colonist with the many varieties of fish.
Colonized 30 years after Jamestown diseases spread inland killing and debilitating Indian tribes making it easy for Maryland to take over the land without much hostility.
Colonist supported themselves by farming raised flax to make their clothing, corn, wheat, vegetables, tobacco and fruit.
They were also involved in fishing, lumber, shipping, raising cattle. Some colonist mined for iron to export to England.
At the beginning only Roman Catholics inhabited Maryland but over time they became out numbered by other christian branches (Puritans, Quakers, Protestants) in order to protect themselves to worship freely and not be overthrown they gave religious freedom to all CHRISTIANS.
When Lord Baltimore arrived he chose to buy the land of the indians, with cloth, hatchets, and hoes, instead of just claiming it. This caused the Indians to have some peace with the English. The Yaocomico Indians let the English live in their longhouse called a "witchott". The Indians also taught the colonist how to plant corn, beans, and squash, as well as where to find food such as clams and oysters.
Beginning of Maryland
King Charles II gave a charter to Lord Baltimore. When Lord Baltimore died, his son, Cecil Calvert inherited his charter. Cecil Calvert sent his brother, Leonard Calvert, as governor of Maryland.
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