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Copy of Copy of Culturally Diverse Families (1)

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Culturally Diverse Families (1)

Virginia Hartman
Jill Pauff
Martha Castaneda
Culturally Diverse Families
National Resources
for Advocacy
School Wide
Engagement Activities
Culturally Diverse Advocacy Groups
•American Academy of Pediatrics is committed to the attainment of optimal physical, mental, and social health and well-being for all infants, children, adolescents, and young adults.

•Annie E. Casey Foundation provides the best available data and analysis on critical issues affecting disadvantaged children and families, as well as the knowledge and tools practitioners, policymakers, and citizens need to advance their efforts on behalf of children.

•Catholic Charities USA is the largest private network of social service organizations in the country and works to support families, reduce poverty, and build communities.

•Children Now Children Now is a research and action organization dedicated to assuring that children grow up in economically secure families, where parents can go to work confident that their children are supported by quality health coverage, a positive media environment, a good early education, and safe, enriching activities to do after school.
•National Council of La Raza: Latino children and youth are the fastest-growing segment of the American population. Currently representing 23% of all children under the age of 18, Latino children are a critically important part of our nation’s future. Through its work, NCLR ensures that Latino children and youth are represented in today’s policy debates and that programs take into account the unique challenges that this segment of America faces.

•The Arab American Family Support Center is contracted by New York City’s Administration of Children’s Services to ensure the safety of children in homes where there have been allegations of child abuse, neglect and/or maltreatment. The Preventive Program aims to strengthen families by offering assistance and services that lead to improved familial relationships and more effective problem solving skills and coping mechanisms.

•Coalition for Asian-American Children and Families The Coalition for Asian American Children and Families advocates for social policies and programs which support Asian American children and families, empowers Asian Americans to advocate for change, and gives service providers culturally sensitive training and resources.

•Justice, Unity, Generosity, and Service (JUGS) A national charitable organization comprised of business and professional women whose primary concern is the welfare of children.
Race, ethnicity, language, age, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, disabilities or country of origin, culture can also include religious or spiritual practices and geographical locations.
(Grant & Ray,2013)
Culturally diverse families can include ...
Immigrant Families
Asian Families
African Families
Latino Families
Asian Families
Diversity focuses primarily on differences related to social class, ethnicity, culture, and language.
(Zeichner, 1992)
Immigrant Families
Latino Families
African American Families
Hierarchical in structure, with males and older individuals occupying a higher status
Males=highly valued
Asian families want sons b/c males are important and they carry on the family name (lineage)
Females=valued less than males
Respect for ancestors and elderly
Loyalty to authority figures
One-way communication: adults speak to children

Collectivism---Family & Group Focus---Interdependence

Discipline--shame and guilt used to control and train children
Family problems are hidden from public and handled within the family.

Outstanding achievement: source of great pride for child and entire family

Mental illness is shameful and represents family failure
(Nguyen, 2002)
Native American Families
•Collaborative approach to problem solving
•Communication – High context culture
•Life view - Acceptance of things as they are
•Cognition/Information gathering – look at things globally; holistically vs. Analytically
•Interactions - Personal views are not imposed on others
•Body language – lower voice volume; gaze directed downward to
express politeness.
•Religion – belief in the interconnectedness of all living and non-living
•Family - Respect for elders; importance and involvement of extended family.
•Children – taught to be self-sufficient.
(Donovan, n.d.)
Native American Families
Understanding a culture's unique characteristics helps us as educators communicate more effectively.
•In 2000, 18 percent of the American populace spoke a language other than English at home.
• In 1990, 15 percent of the total child population was African American, 12 percent Hispanic, 3 percent Asian, and 1 percent Native American.
• It is projected that, by 2010, Hispanic children will surpass African-American children as the largest child minority.
•In addition, by 2020, more than one in five American children are expected to be of Hispanic descent.
•Immigrant children have special needs that must be addressed by the public elementary school.
• The debate over what form of English education children of immigrants should take has attracted much attention.
•At the beginning of the twenty-first century, programs for English learners in elementary schools are striving to focus on a holistic approach to educating transcultural/transnational peoples in a global context.
(Mccarthy & Quinn, n.d.)
Working with Religiously Diverse Families
When working with families who do not speak English as their first Language, encourage them to speak with their child in the home with their children in the home language and support families in the following ways:
Loan native language books, stories, and materials to families to use during interactive reading activities
Include families and extended relatives in the classroom as language models to read to the class in their first language or tell stories, provide translation, and teach the class new words.
keep families informed about their child's language development in the acquisition of English.
Allow students to maintain their native culture and language. (Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory(NWREL), 1998
Recruit volunteers to serve as guides for the familys' first year in a new school setting. Mentors should speak both English and the families' native language. If that is not feasible, then offer the services of translators when possible.
Work with your district to offer district -wide meetings for families with limited English proficiency, complete with translators to ensure information is disseminated and questions are answered. (Clayton,2003)
(Grant & Ray 2013)
Working with Linguistically Diverse Families
Research the major religions or beliefs systems practiced within your school community. Take notes on any restrictions within the religion that may influence your classroom instruction and your students . Investigate festivals or celebrations that could add richness to your curriculum.
Be aware of school district's policies relating to how religious information is shared, and also make sure families are aware of the district policies and legal rights concerning religion.
Remember, students also have the right to express their religious views during a class discussion or as a part of a written assignment or activity.
Recruit another teacher as a mentor to help you with community religious issues.
If you are concerned that a conversation with a family member about religious concerns may become confrontational or accusatory, ask your administrator, mentor,teacher, or family involvement coordinator to be a part of the meeting. (Grant & Ray, 2013)
Culture, refers to the knowledge, attitudes, values, and customs that characterize a social group.
(Eggen & Kauchak, 2007)
Culture is the lens through which people view the world based on their backgrounds and experiences. (Grant & Ray, 2013)
•Educators must respond with school reform efforts that meet the needs of all students.
•They must develop culturally sensitive curricula that integrate multicultural viewpoints and histories
•Apply instructional strategies that encourage all students to achieve
•Review school and district policies related to educational equity.
•Responsible for preparing future teacher to promote meaningful, engaged learning for all students
•Regardless of their race, gender, ethnic heritage, or cultural background.
•Efforts to welcome, understand and affirm all students
•Treat their cultural and linguistic backgrounds as equally valid and important should be reflected in every facet of the school environment.
Best Practices
"When Outreach efforts reflect a sincere desire
to engage parents and community members as partners in children's education, the studies show that they respond Positively" (Henderson & Mapp 2002, p66)
What Should School Districts Do?
Actively welcome students and families
Begin Relationships on a positive note
Highlight school success
Improve school-family communication
Show respect for all families
Treat parents as individuals
Be open with parents
Take parents' concerns seriously
Promote professionalism and strong teaching
Remember that trust-building takes time
(Brewster & Railsback 2003)
What should Teachers Do?

Immigrant families and their children are now part of communities in every state of the nation. As a teaching professional, your task is to focus on the well-being,adjustment and accommodation of the family and child in the school community.
Focus on helping the child become successful in school.
School success is embraced and encourage by families, mostly immigrant families.
Provide families with resources for their lifelong leaning goals by sharing resources for English classes, job training, GED classes, and job opportunities.
As a key person in the adaption process for immigrant family, you may be the "ambassador" of American culture. Provide explanations and reason for our way of life, from special celebrations and holidays to the foods served in the school cafeteria.
Depending on the stage of adaptation, you may be using translators and interpreters with recently arrived immigrant families; as the teacher, you must always be the person responsible for a child's school progress-translators are to be the background voice during meetings and conferences.
Be aware of intercultural communication, which includes more than just language, but also the relationships between people who are different in values, role expectations, and rules in social relationships. (NWREL, 1998)
Encourage family engagement. Many families come from cultures where teachers are not questioned and family engagement in schooling would be considered rude and disrespectful (NWREL, 1998)
Involvement in the educational process may be a new concept for many immigrant families. Continuously reach out to your students' families with suggestions of ways they may be involved with their child's education.
Seek to understand the causes of immigration and particular concerns of your students' families. Immigrants come to the United States for various reasons, and no two immigrants' experiences are the same.
Understanding why students' families immigrated will assist in developing a positive relationship with immigrant families. (Grant & Ray 2013)
Working With Newly Immigrated Families
Classroom Engagement Activities
In linguistically diverse communities, parents whose primary language is not English may not be Comfortable serving on PTA committees or other traditional engagement programs. Still, there are myriad ways in which these parents can participate in school life and enhance the school community
» Check-out books at the library
» Re-shelving library and classroom books
» Work at annual events like book fairs, teacher appreciation day, etc.
» Escort children from classroom to classroom or to out-of-class program
» Make photocopies for teachers or office personnel
» Stuff envelopes
» Contribute to bake sales, clothing drives, food drives
» Assemble homework packets, study guides, and activity kits
» Chaperone field trips or study hall
» Help teachers set-up or take-down room displays
» Hang flyers around school
» Decorate for school spirit days or seasonal celebrations
» Supervision of students’ arrival and dismissal
» Planning and supervising classroom parties
» Prepare classroom materials—cutting, pasting, stapling, applying
stickers, etc.
» Share special skills and expertise in the classroom or enrichment
programs like music, art, dance, theater or sports
(Briggs & Garcia, 2008)
School Wide Family Engagement continued
Back to school night
Family Literacy night
Bilingual Literacy nights
cultural nights
diversity celebrations
Funds of knowledge events
Night at the museum
Science family fun
Family technology night
(Grant & Ray 2013)
* "Our most basic common link is that we all inhabit this planet. We all breathe the same air. We all cherish our children's future. And we are all mortal."
-- John F. Kennedy
I probably spent the first 20 years of my life wanting to be as American as possible. Through my 20s, and into my 30s, I began to become aware of how so much of my art and architecture has a decidedly Eastern character.
Maya Lin
Involvement of extended family and community members
Collective decision-making
A sense of resiliency and flexibility
Two-parent families
Value of education
Traumatic Experiences
Living in Poverty
Parent Disconnect from Education
Inter-generational Conflict
Value of community needs over individual needs
(MENTOR/National Mentoring Partnership, 2007)
And you have to remember that I came to America as an immigrant. You know, on a ship, through the Statue of Liberty. And I saw that skyline, not just as a representation of steel and concrete and glass, but as really the substance of the American Dream.
Daniel Libeskind
Tell me and I'll forget. Show me, and I may not remember. Involve me, and I'll understand.
Native American Saying
Groups - Working in groups is valued; collaborative approach to problem
solving; interdependence.
Communication - High context culture. Indirect cues, communication
relies on the context of the conversation and shared experience; personal delivery is important; perceptions are very dependent on personal interactions
Life view - To be well educated is to have skills in personal relationships.
Cognition/Information gathering - High sensitivity to non-verbal cues.
Interactions - Warm, interpersonal interactions valued over task-oriented
Body language - Attuned to non-verbal communication cues.
Religion - Spiritual, mystical belief system, faith and natural healers.
Family - Respect for elderly; ‘intergenerational folk knowledge’
(knowledge passed down from older generations to younger) is valued;
strong sense of family and loyalty to family; tendency to a patriarchal
structure (this is changing); importance of extended family.
Children – Parents are nurturing and permissive; independence is not
fostered, parent child relationship is very important.
(Donovan, n.d.)
I am a firm believer in education and have worked very hard to tell young Latinos that they must go to college and that, if possible, they should pursue an advanced degree. I am convinced that education is the great equalizer.
Jimmy Smits
Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today.
Malcolm X
· Groups - Working in groups valued; collaborative approach to problem solving.
· Communication - High context culture. Use of indirect cues,
communication relies on context of the conversation and shared
experience. Musical aspects of communication emphasized.
· Life view - Respect for elders; strong support for education.
· Cognition/Information gathering - Aural mode of presentation in
learning is best, incorporating movement and touch; learning occurs
through interactions rather than introspections.
· Interactions - Socialized to be ‘good’; fearful about being judged
· Body language – Full body use to convey feelings.
· Religion - Very important; strong spiritual orientation.
· Family - Extended family is very important, including friends as well as relatives. Many African American families are matriarchal.
· Children– Children are loved so it is felt they must have a good
education; authoritarian approach to child-rearing.
· Views on Disabilities - Two views are held: disabilities may just be bad luck or punishment as the result of wrong-doing by parents. However, African Americans, as a whole, don’t exhibit any particular prejudice against people with disabilities.
(Donovan, n.d.)
Research confirms that the involvement of parents and family education is critical to students' academic success.

1. Create a welcoming school climate.
Provide a personal greeting and welcome packet for school, including a community services directory, important information, school, calendar and coupons to local locations.
Hold an open house, prior to school opening, at which children's teachers, tour the school building.
Provide transportation and child care to enable families sponsored, family-involvement events.
2. Provide Families information related to chld development supportive learning environments.
Provide workshops and materials for parents on typical development and appropriate parent and school expectations for various age groups.
Print suggetions for parents on home conditions that support learning at each grade level.
Partner with local to provide regular parenting workshops on nutritioagenciesn,family recreatin or communication.
Have school personnel make home visits at transitions points such as preshcool and elementary, middle and high school to help families and students understand what to expect.
3. Establish effective school-to-home and home-to-school communications.
Provide printed information for parents on homework policies and on monitoring and supporting student work at home.
Send home folders of student work weekly or monthly for parent review and comment.
Develop electronic grade booklets so families can frequetly monitor their children's progress.
Clearly communicate school policies to all families in thier home language.
Establish formal mechanisms for families to communicate to administators and teachers as needed (e.g., direct phone numbers, weekly hours for families to call or meet).
Create a families "suggestions or comment" box (electronic and onsite) for families to anonymously provide thier quetions, concerns and recommendatins.
Brewster, C., Railsback, J.(2003). Building trust with schools and diverse families. Adolescent Literacy resources for parents and educators of kids in grades 4-12. Retrieve from: http://www.adlit.org/article/21522/#top

Briggs, S., Garcia, M. (2008). Volunteer Opportunities. Teaching Tolerance. Retrieved from:

Donovan, S. (n.d.). Family Characteristics within a cultural framework. Children’s Medical Services. Retrieve from:

Eggen, P., Kauchak, D. (2007). Group and Individual Differences. In J.W. Johnston & K.M. Davis (Eds.), Educational Psychology: Windows on Classrooms, (7th ed., pp. 103-116). Pearson: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Grant, K., Ray, J. (2013) Home, school, and community collaboration: culturally responsive family engagement (2nd ed.).Oaks, CA:Sage.

Mccarthy, J., Quinn, L., ( n.d.).Elementary Education - Current Trends, Preparation Of Teachers - HISTORY OF. Retrieved from: http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1950/Elementary-Education.html#ixzz21wHAo52U

National Mentoring Partnership, (2007). Characteristics of immigrant and refugee children.
Retrieved from:www.mentoring.org/downloads/mentoring_457.doc

Nguyen. L, (2002). Characteristics of the traditional Asian family. Retrieved from:

Ohio State Board of Education, (2012) Best practice for parent involvement in schools. Retrieved from: http://www.education.ohio.gov

Shaw-Cooper, C., (1997). Educating Teachers for Diversity. Retrieved from: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/presrvce/pe300.htm

Teaching Tolerance. [Diane Holtam].(2008, January 30). Inviting Engagement.
Retrieve from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yf1rlf2myCA&list=PLC438194A2CC5F2D8&index=2&feature=plpp_video

Teaching Tolerance. [Diane Holtam]. (2008, January 30). Overcoming Language Barriers.
Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PWx9YllpEYY&feature=relmfu

Xtranormal [Miss Johnson]. (2011, June 16). Classroom meeting cultural understandings.
Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7LQ5Wv6jt3E

Zeichner, K. (1992, September). NCRTL Special Report: Educating Teachers for Cultural Diversity. Retrieved September 20, 2007, from Michigan State University, National Center for Research on Teacher Learning Web site:http://ncrtl.msu.edu/http/sreports/sr293.pdf
As nurses, in an ever-changing society it becomes evident that we need to respect and honor different cultures that are represented within our clinical settings. We need to provide all patients with opportunities to express their cultural beliefs in a free and open way. In addition, we need to provide parents and families with opportunities to participate in a child's plan of care. It is also important to check our personal habitudes to insure that our preconceived ideas and beliefs are not interfering with the care of our patients.
In conclusion, when working with culturally diverse families one must make them feel welcome and do all that is at ones reach to help them. When they feel welcome, they are more likely to come to you with questions and volunteer for more responsibility. Once the relationship between families and the nurse reach this point, the hospital will function at its best.
4. Strengthen families' knowledge and skills to support and extend their children's learning at home and in the community.
Provide training and materials for parents on how to improve children's study skills or learning in various academic subjects.
Make regular homework assignments that require students to discuss with their families what they are learning in class.
Provide a directory of community resources and activities that link to student learning skills and talents, including summer programs for students.
Offer workshops to inform families of the high expectations and standards children are expected to meet in each grade level. Provide ways for families to support the expectations and learning at home.
Engage families in opportunities to work with their children in setting theri annual academic, college and career goals.
5. Engage families in school planning, leadership and meaningful volunteer opportunities.
Create roles for parents on all decision-making and advisory committees, properly training them for the areas in which they will serve (e.g., curriculum, budget or school safety).
Provide equal representation for parents on school on school governing bodies.
conduct a survey of parents ot identify volunteer interest, talents and availability, matching these resources to school programs and staff-support needs.
Create volunteer recognition activities such as events, certificates and thank-you cards.
Establish a parent telephone tree to provide school information and encourage interaction among parents.
Structure a network that links every family with a designated parent representative.
6. Connect students and families to community resources that strengthen and support students' learning and well-being.
Through school-community partnerships, facilitate families' access to community-based programs (e.g., human care and human services) to ensure that families have resources to be involved i thier chilren's educations.
Establish school-business partnerships to provide students mentoring, internships and onsite, experiential learning opportunities.
Connect students and families to service-learning projects in the community. Invite community partners to share resources at annual open houses or parent-teacher conferences.
(Ohio State Board of education,2012)
Best Practices Continued
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