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Confederation of Canada
Transcript of Confederation of Canada
John A. Macdonald
In the confederation of Canada there were many politicians and leaders that played an important role for the many things they did. These people contributed towards the confederation of Canada in a big way and created what Canada is today. Many of these people were influential and had a big impact on the country. These influential politicians/leaders were:
John A. Macdonald
George Etienne Cartier
Now that we have gotten to know the key personalities and the impact they made let's move on to the key events. Each key event has made an impact some way or another and has been held by the politicians and leaders to discuss different matters about the confederation of Canada. Many of these key events had caused a big impact on the country whether or not they held more importance then others. These are key events that I thought created a big impact:
Deadlock in Canada West
Maritime Union Conference
The completion of Confederation with the addition of Manitoba, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, the admission of the Yukon as a territory (1898), Alberta and Saskatchewan, and Newfoundland
Deadlock in Canada West
The Completion of Confederation
Right after the acceptance of responsible government, governments were very unstable and problematic causing there to be an issue as there are no long lasting governments that could provide the colonies with political stability. From the time period of 1854-1864 there was approximately 10 governments and most of them were having a hard time. The political system created many groups that in the assembly and with the political instability with the governments developing it soon created a political deadlock which later resulted to the confederation.
At that time New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island were a part of Nova Scotia so when the Charlottetown Conference was happening only Nova Scotia was proposed to become a part of the other united colonies. They wanted the Maritime Union to join because it had many benefits and they did not want them to be as dependent on the Crown. George Brown spent 2 days discussing with other members but did not discuss the issues to avoid any difficulties because Prince Edward Island was already against the idea a lot but was scheduled to meet again at the Quebec conference to confirm the details.
The Quebec conference was held 1 month after the Charlottetown Conference and discussed the major conflict, those who favored the legislative union and those who favored the provincial rights. This was an issue because people like John a. Macdonald felt strongly and wouldn't back down while those from maritime and from Canada East(Quebec) favored provincial rights because they didn't want to lose their cultural differences and independence. Macdonald came to the conclusion that the situation was very similar to the American Civil War which they concluded it would be better off to create each a group for the country and province in which they could both agree on and they could also have the power divided eaqually among them. In they decided they would need a House of Commons and voted for those they want to be a senate.
The last part of completing the process for the confederation was the Dominion elections that were held in August and September. This election was to elect the first Parliament and the 4 new province governments. The Anti Confederation Party won many seats in the federal and provincial in the legislature. Joseph Howe and William Annand led a seven year old useless battle to try to get the British Imperial to favor them into letting them free of being a part of the confederation. The battle was of no use because the choice that had been decided remained the same.
The last conference was the London Conference which was held in United Kingdom that took place on December 4, 1866. There were a few members that were present from each faction, the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The members were now summoned to create a draft of the British North America, 1867. Since most major problems have been dealt with there were only minor issues to resolve such as separate school system. This was held in favor by Quebec and Ontario but was opposed by the Maritimes because they weren't included. This only meant there would be separate schools in Quebec and Ontario which causedthem to disagree. This was mainly used to discuss the British Not=rth America Act, 1867. This was also the last conference to be held for the confederation.
After his arrival from Britain he had once again discovered his government was in a big crisis that could not be solved at this point. As a great leader he approached other leaders that he thought could assist him. Before he could put the plan into action he was approach to take up oh his offer and negotiate with each other to think of the good for the country by creating a federal system. Both gathered their parties and announced they were working together as allies together in the Great Coalition. John A. Macdonald attended each conference and participated as an active member without hesitation but did voice his opinions. After many debates and conferences it was confirmed that they approved the confederation which was later announced on July 1st. As elections were held John A. Macdonald later claimed his role as the prime minister.
Consequences of the Creation of the Dominion of Canada
How Does it Impact Us Today?
Alexander Galt was a politician and a father of the Canadian Confederation. He was a member of the Great Coalition government in the province of Canada. He was a leading figure of the Coalition because he was recommended by others to become premier. Even though he was thought to be a great candidate but he doubted his own skills and turned down the position. Although he turned down the other position he was brought another offer to become the Inspector-General of Canada. He accepted the offer and soon was an important role in the federal union but later ended his career as an MP because he strongly disagreed and even went to the British Empire with his complaint.
Ambrose Shea was both a political and business leader that worked in New Foundland. He took part as one of the delegates in the Quebec conference. At first he worked as an employee in their small family business that was a newspaper called "The Newfoundlander". Although he had the family busines he still became a successful merchant. Ambrose was nominated for the Newfoundland House of Assembley in 1842 but kindly refuse to attend. He was later nominated again but this time as speaker with an invitation to the Quebec Conference which he attended and spoke in their favour because he was speaking on behalf of the Maritimes Union. Although he was a great speaker the population was against his opinon which later resulted in defeat for being part of the Confederation of Canada.
The 1859 Nova Scotia election had a big impact on Charles Tupper because he was unsure of the idea of interactin and having a union with the other British North American Colonies. Although at first he was against it by 1860 he agreed to help them with Confederation on Canada and gave a speech titled "The Political Condition of British North America" to the public to display he was now partaking in the union of the colonies. He fought for the rights for the Maritime Union and got them as many rights as Quebec and Ontario did. A few years later the effort that he put in the union had not gone to waste as he had gotten a reward which included becoming the prime minister.
The Dominion of Canada was the new federal system that was developed through the Confederation of Canada. Although this new federal system was favored by most of the population the federal system was nonetheless flawed. The Dominion of Canada also caused a few problems to arise such as:
An uprising against John A. Macdonald (Prime Minister)
Disagreements from the Maritime Union
Many people were against the idea of no free trade policy
The Red River Rebellion took place a few day after the Confederation of Canada
It also cause metis and the unheard voices to step up and voice their opinions
The Anti -Confederation Party was one of the main opposing views along with the leader of the Quebecois Party. These parties were both against the idea of the confederation taking place as it wouldn't benefit them in any large way. The Anti-Confederation Party was led by the one of many leaders Joseph Howe who had a considerable amount of experience in politics. This party was created to voice the opinion of the Martime Union who was having a hard time agreeing to the fact they would benefit nothing from joining the union. This same issue occurred to the Quebecois causing them to be the opposing view for it. Even though they were opposing to most of the population they still held their ground and cause uprises to form.
George Brown was a strong political leader and has influenced many people at that time but upset many people when he decided to resign the Coalition as now he didn't posess as much power. The reason being why he resigned was over the reciprocity with the United States. He also felt they should allow free trade but the government officials had more power in that matter and decided what they was the best for Canada. This had taken a toll on George Brown and he decided it was better off to resign. He attended most of the conferences and usual held ground for the Quebec supporters. His voice and opinion was being considerably unheard and he decided it was a useless battles to fight therefore causing him to resign from politics overall.
Although the metis, africans and women were part of the developing community they didn't have much of a say to the matter concerning politicians as they were weak opponents and didn't overall make a difference. The women weren't even allowed to vote till a certain time period which took place long after the Confederation of Canada. African descented people weren't allowed to voice their opinion and even if they did there would be consequences same goes to metis which really mae them upset becuase they weren't feeling as if they were part of the community. A few years later these people could finally give their opinion and exprees how they feel.
The Confederation of Canada has impacted us in many visible ways through the past years. It has effected our Parliament and election system. As we learned beforehand it impacted the systematic order of how we choose a leader for our community like our municipal leader. Some of the ways they affected us are:
The federal, provincial and municipal system categories allow us to vote easily
The election system allows us to have a democratic society where everyone's opinion counts
It categorizes us easily according to where we live
It gives us the freedom to express our opinion on any matter
It allows us to be a part of the community and help make a difference
By: Samira Kabir 8A
In conclusion I think the colonies joined together to create a country because the separate government were not financially neither politically stable and benefited more together and and supported each other easily. It also benefited them in the way there would be no more problem between the land and colonies that thet was around Canada as they were now all a group that all had a democratic society that led them to the better future they created.