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Transcript of Reading Assessment
What is the goal of literacy assessment?
Sociocultural theory suggests that the mind is social in nature, and that language in use plays a central role in mediating our actions as humans. When considering literacy development, sociocultural theory suggests that literacy is conceptualized as a social practice and socially mediated, and that it is not exclusively about the acquisition of a code, but also a culture.
How can assessment help Saoussan?
Reading assessment helps educators to identify patterns in students' reading behaviour. This information can guide effective instructional decisions.
Reliability has to do with consistency
Validity has to do with accuracy
what works clearing house
Words Correct Per Minute
Informal Reading Inventories
What kind of information do we hope to gain through reading assessment?
To revalue is to notice and build on what learners can do, and to help them value and reflect on the knowledge they have (Goodman, 1996). Value is at the heart of "evaluation." Rather than viewing some children as "low" or "lacking in skills," educators who value their students view all children as creative, capable learners.
What strengths (value) does she already have?
Standardized reading tests are machine-scored instruments that sample reading performance during a single administration (Vacca & Vacca, 2012).
A norm-referenced test is constructed by administering the test to large numbers of students in order to develop norms. Norms represent average scores of a sampling of students according to specific factors such as age, grade, etc.
Performance on a criterion-referenced test, unlike a norm-referenced standardized test, is judged by what a student can or cannot do with regard to the skill objectives of the test.
The mastery of reading skills are assessed in relation to specific instructional objectives.
For example, if there are ten test items for each skill objective, eight to ten correct items would suggest a level of mastery as specified by the objective.
WIAT III, Peabody, ...
Individually administered reading tests. Typical components include graded word lists, reading passages and comprehension questions.
IRIs are commercially available (eg. QRI-5), but teachers can easily construct their own.
The passages are used to assess how students interact with print orally and silently.
A major component of administering an IRI is recording oral reading omissions, substitutions, and mispronunciations, also known as miscues.
A running record, originally developed by Marie Clay (1985), is an assessment system for determining students' development of oral reading fluency and word identification skills and strategies.
The teacher calculates the percentage of words the student reads correctly and then analyzes the miscues for instructional purposes (evaluating material difficulty, grouping students homogeneously, monitoring individual progress of students, and observing the difficulties of struggling readers).
Student reads aloud for one minute from materials used in their reading lessons. As the student reads the text, the teacher crosses our any word read incorrectly. To calculate the score, the teacher counts the number of correctly read words, records and then graphs the score in order to track changes in rates and accuracy over time.
The Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills includes a series of oral reading skill assessments. The various components of DIBELS include letter naming fluency, initial sound fluency, phoneme segmentation fluency, nonsense word fluency, and oral reading fluency.
Portfolios are collections that document the literary development of a student and include evidence of student work in various stages.
Some examples of elements to include in a portfolio include: written/artistic responses to reading, writing in several genres, teacher-assigned and student-generated work, self-reflections, work in progress, reading logs, etc.
Through interviewing, the teacher can discover what children are thinking or feeling. Periodic student interviews can lead to a better understanding of reading interests and attitudes, how students perceive their strengths and weaknesses, and how students perceive processes related to language learning.
Conferring: The Pensieve
Kidwatching provides a framework for engaging in systematic, yet very personalized, data collection in all areas of literacy.
A miscue refers to a reader's unexpected responses to written text.
The more teachers understand the nature of their students' miscues, the better they are able to support their students' reading development.
Teachers are also able to judge the degree to which readers are using their knowledge of language cueing systems by:
- noting whether substitutions are the same part of speech, and fit the grammar and the meaning of the sentences in the whole story or article
- recognizing the extent to which omissions and insertions result in acceptable sentences
- evaluating substitutions that reveal knowledge of spelling patterns and phonics
- documenting the many sentences and words that the reader never miscues on
- Substitutions: A substitution is noted when a real word is substituted for the word in the text.
Draw a line through the text word and write the substituted word above it.
- Omissions: An omission is noted when the reader omits a unit of written language (a word, several words, or one or more sentences.)
- Insertions: The insertion miscue results when a word (or words) is inserted in the passage.
Use a caret (^) to indicate which word was inserted.
- Repetition: In repetition, a word or phrase is repeated. Treat the repetition of more than one word as a single unit.
If the repetition of a phrase leads to the correction of a miscue, underline the whole segment of the repeated line.
If the repetition of the phrase is without miscues, mark it with an ®
- Self-Correction: The reader successfully corrects the miscue.
Use a © to denote self-corrections.
- Unsuccessful self-correction: The reader attempts to correct an error but is unsuccessful.
Use a uc
What can we do with the data collected from formal and informal assessments?
What aspects of reading instruction can be modified to adapt to each learners' needs?
1. Nadia lead a discussion about meeting the literacy needs of diverse learners.
2. Maryana presented some very fun apps last week.
3. Micha’s presentation is very boring.
4. Jackie’s sons are very cute and they already know a lot about print concepts.
5. Next week, class is cancelled because of Thanksgiving.
--> Miscue analysis...