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Chapter 2 The American Nation
Transcript of Chapter 2 The American Nation
Washington Takes the Oath
Hamilton on National Bank
A. Secretary of Treasury Department
1 Government takes on all state debt
2. Southern states almost paid off debt (Not happy with plan)
The Expanding Nation Section 1
Jefferson vs. Hamilton
Hamilton and Congress decide that the country needs a national bank
Central bank with branches in major cities.
Bank would create a universal currency
Also serve as a sources for loans to assist the government
South depends on credit, however, they are not completely on board with Hamilton's idea.
Fear of wealthy Northeastern merchants controlling the government was a fear of the South.
Jefferson believes the formation of a national bank is unconstitutional
Both men refer to the elastic clause as an argument for and against the establishment of the bank.
Jefferson's argument was Congress could only do what was necessary to carry out its duties, which is called
Strict construction - narrow interpretation of the constitution
Hamilton believed that within broad limits the gov't could take any reasonable action that the Constitution does not specifically forbid. This is called
Loose construction - broad interpretation of the constitution
Washington sides with Hamilton and the National Bank is born
The Rise of Political Parties
Rap Battle Hamilton vs. Jefferson
Challenges include: Debt, American Indians, and Britain
Congress passes law on whisky (
Whisky Rebellion 1791-1794
Pennsylvania farmers rebel because it hits them the hardest
sents 13,000 state militia to stop the uprising
American Nations join together in a loose confederation to defend lands due to colonial expansion.
defeats U.S. Troops
sends 3,000 soldiers to protect frontier
recognizes the American Army is better equipped and is defeated at the
Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794).
They sign treated with the U.S. Gov't and lose much of the NW Territory
Tensions with Great Britain
France decides to go to war with Britain (1792)
wishes to remain
, however, both
American merchant vessels bound for enemy ports
and forces them to
People Who Support Federalists
Church leaders, lawyers, manufacturers, and merchants
People Who Support the Democratic Republicans
Artisans, planters, small farmers, tradespeople, wage earners, and workers
Washington doesn't seek a third term
Person with most electoral votes becomes president and the runner-up becomes vice-president
In this case, Jefferson is Adams's VP
French begin seizing American ships bound for America because of Washington's neutral stance.
Congress passes the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) in response
Alien and Sedition Act - authorized president to imprison or expel "all such aliends
(foreigners) as he shall judge dangerous to the peace and
safety of the U.S."
Targeted at those who spoke out against the gov't. Critics believed it was a violation of the 1st amendment.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions -
Jefferson and Madison write resolutions
Denounce the acts as unconstitutional
Asks Congress to repeal them
Congress refuses, but shows the declining popularity of President Adams and Federalists
President in 1801
Democratic-Republicans win control of the House of Representatives
Federalists fear policies of Jefferson and appoint a number of new federal judgeships.
Known as "midnight judges" because he appointed them the night before Jefferson was sworn into office.
Marbury vs. Madison (Need to know)
Pic of John Marshall destroying the Supreme Court according to Jefferson
Judicial Review is used and brings power to the Supreme Court, which it was lacking
Pledge of Moderation
Keeps National Bank
Debt payment plan
Repealed Whiskey Tax
Cut military spending to pay off debt
Jefferson tries to remain neutral in foreign affairs
1803, seizes an opportunity to expand the size of the U.S.
James Monroe is sent by Jefferson to assist U.S. minister Frances Robert in France to negotiate land in the Louisiana Territory (port at the mouth of the MS River OR access to New Orleans)
Offers Napoleon 10 million dollars, but Napoleon offers to sell all of Louisiana.
The U.S. diplomats agree to pay 15 million dollars, which is 4 cents an acre. Known as the largest land deal in the history of the world
Jefferson sends Lewis and Clark to explore the Louisiana territory because neither side new how much land there actually was.
Lewis and Clark hire French-Canadian fur trader Sacagawea, and American Indians Mandan and Shoshone to be their guides and interpreters
Louisiana Purchase added all or part of 13 future states
1807 British attack an American ship killing 3 sailors
Jefferson urges Congress to pass embargo, stopping shipment of American products to all foreign ports.
Called the Embargo Act of 1807 and backfires because it hurts mostly American merchants and farmers
Indian Chief mocks Louisiana Purchase and urges indians to not sell their lands to the settlers. "Why not sell the air, clouds, and the great sea?"
U.S. Gov't sends soldiers under the command of General William Henry Harrison to defeat Tecumseh's army
In 1812, James Madison (4th Pres) declares war with Britain because he believed they were helping the Indians.
In 1814 U.S. suffers a major blow when Britain burns down the nations capital (Washington D.C.)
U.S. forces, under Andrew Jackson win a decisive battle at New Orleans in 1815, which is after the peace treaty is signed. Bad communication
War of 1812
How Booze Built America
I. Hamilton Profile
B. Served in war under G.Washington
II. Proposal & Problems
A. U.S. Credibility
1. Madison & Jefferson
2. See at as a large power play
3. Strict vs. Loose construction
C. Deal Reached
1. Move capital
2. Philly to land now owned by the Fed....D.C.
3. South in favor b/c it's close to S. states