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Transcript of Russian Gulags
Some citizens were put in for petty crimes such as arriving late to work three times. They would be sent to the Gulag for three years for this crime. Telling a joke about a Soviet Union official would warrant up to 25 years.
In 1934, the Congress of Soviet Writers adopted the theory of Social Realism.
Many artist and writers were sent to the Gulag due to this law. Alexander Solzhenitsyn was one of the writers.
By the time of Stalin’s death, 14 million people had been placed into Gulags. Who was sent to the Gulags? During World War II, Stalin was in power.
Because of his terror tactics, the Gulags were in heavy use.
About 1.6 million people were in the camps at one time during this period.
Many people died from in the gulags and the population declined for a time period, mostly due starvation and the cold. Gulags during World War II http://osaarchivum.org/gulag/txt1.htm
Prentice Hall, World History: The Modern World , Ellis, Eller, The Truth Revealed The name Gulag became familiar in the West only after the publication of Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s The Gulag Archipelago.
His previous book, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich is about a typical day of a Gulag inmate.
Originally published in November 1962 in Novyi Mir (New World), One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich was soon banned and withdrawn from all libraries.
One Day in the Life is the first work to describe the Gulag as an instrument of governmental repression against its own citizens.
Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1970 "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature" As the Soviet Union’s main penal system, Gulags held typical prisoners such as robbers, rapists, murderers, and thieves.
However, it also held political prisoners, or those disloyal to Stalin and the state.
In the Great Purge, Stalin and the secret police sent Old Bolsheviks ( early revolutionaries) and party activists to the Gulags. He then added target army heroes, industrial managers, writers, and ordinary citizens. With Stalin’s death in 1953, the Gulag population was reduced significantly.
Political prisoners were released starting 1954.
Nikita Khrushchev denounced Stalinism at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party in 1956.
By the end of the 1950s, virtually all “corrective labor camps” had been dissolved Decline of the Gulags Gulag populations reached a peak in the early 1940s.
However, during World War II, there was a sharp decrease in the number of Gulag prisoners, due to the mass release of conscripted prisoners.
In 1945, marking the end of World War II, the population once again soared, reaching more than 2 million by 1945. Gulag Populations Most of the people put into Gulags were forced to confess crimes against the state.
The biggest majority of these victims were the Polish people, as East Poland had tried to invade the Russia.
Race did not matter when it came to the Gulags.
Enemy soldiers were captured and sent to the Gulags. Others were killed.
Katorga was the worst and most harsh type of Gulag. Many Poles were subject to this. World War II Gulag Victims There were different living conditions is each Gulag.
However, all prisoners in the Gulag were dehumanized . On arrival to the Gulag, they were stripped of their clothes and had to wear prison uniforms. They had to shave their heads and were given prison numbers. There was no contact with the outside world, and their relatives were denied information.
Rations were poor, and distributed according to the work performed.
In the eyes of the authorities, the prisoners had almost no value. Those who died of hunger, cold, and hard labor were replaced by new prisoners because the system could always find more people to replenish the labor camps. Conditions in the Gulags Continued... Famous Labor Camps One of the most famous labor camps of the Gulag in Soviet Russia was the Solovetsk Special Camp, which was called the "Mother of the Gulag" and became the model camp.
Other camps were based on the same living conditions and repression methods as this camp.
The Kolyma Labor Camp was one of the most brutal camps in the Gulag. Introduction to the
Russian Gulags Russian Gulags were first started under Vladimir Lenin after the 1917 Russian Revolution, but grew tremendously under Stalin.
Gulags were the forced labor camps of Russia in which Stalin held millions of people, ranging from political adversaries to minor criminals.
Any act seen as anti-communist or nonconformist could be punishable by imprisonment in the Gulags. Introduction to the Russian Gulags Continued... What were the Gulags Of Russia? The Gulag provided the Soviet Union with a large cheap labor force of IM GETTING A LIL FIRED UP
Stalin used the convicts to help create several large construction projects such as the White Sea Baltic Canal.
Nearly half of the hundreds of thousands of Gulag prisoners were sentenced to the brutal labor camps without trial. Graph Changes in No. of Convicts from 1921-1953 Graph of Convicts Gulag Statistics