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APA Topic 4

How to cite references at the end of an APA-style paper


on 6 February 2017

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Transcript of APA Topic 4

Use sentence-style caps for article titles. Don’t use quotation marks (unless the title itself contains them).
Use title-style caps and italics for periodical titles.
Include volume, issue, and page numbers when you have them.
If you don't have the volume and issue numbers, use a date, month, or season to indicate the issue.
Include the month and day for newspaper articles.
Can't find the date of publication on a website? Scroll down to the bottom of the page and look for the copyright or "last updated" stamp.
Topic 4: References List
Helping other researchers locate the sources you cite in your paper.
Using URLs
on the References List

Include as much information as possible.
The basic format for a book citation requires the author, year, title, place of publication, and publisher.
When citing a work from an anthology or only a single chapter within a book, be sure to include the following:
author of the article or chapter that you cited in the text
title of the article or chapter
editor of the anthology
page numbers of the article or chapter
When citing a republished work, include the date of the original publication.
Include the names of translators.
Helping the reader find sources online
Don't panic!
Know where to look,
but don't stress about what's not there.
Be clear.
Use common sense.
Include edition numbers or indicators such as "Revised ed."
For e-books or books read online, include information to help the reader locate the source online, such as
the digital format or e-reader version
the DOI
"Retrieved from" and a URL
Formatting References Citations for Periodicals
Conversations (including interviews, phone calls, and emails) between you and a source are not considered retrievable source material (i.e., another researcher would not have access to those phone calls or emails).

Thus, these personal communications need not be cited in the references list, but you should be sure to cite them in the text of the paper.
Formatting the References List
Begin on a new page.
Center the section title "References" in regular type at the top of the first references page.
Use "hanging" indent for each citation.
List the citations in alphabetical order.
For multiple sources by the same author in the same year, alphabetize
by the first letter in the title and use lowercase letters after the date to distinguish them.
doi=digital object identifier
To cite material from a website that is not a periodical or database, include the following:
the author, if one is given
the date
the title of the web page
the title of the entire website, if it will help
the reader
"Retrieved from" and the URL
To learn how to cite other sources, such as court cases, conference proceedings, videos, blog posts, forum comments, and tweets, see
Publication Manual of the APA, 6th Ed., Chapter 7
APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th Ed.:
Have a question about your references list?

Visit the APA Style Blog:
Visit the Purdue OWL's APA References section:
Email the Writing Center: writingcenter@stedwards.edu
Chat with the SEU Library:

Use "Retrieved from" before all URLs except DOIs.
Do not place a period after the URL.
Posts on the APA Style Blog, such as this one on How to Cite Twitter and Facebook:
From the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th Ed., an addendum to the print manual.
The Publication Manual of the APA, 6th Ed., and the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th Ed., differ on formatting of DOIs. Use either one of these formats, but be consistent.
So, to summarize, you should use one of the following methods to indicate the location of a source online:
doi: 10.1386/tear.10.2-3.269_1
Retrieved from http://www.journalpublisher.edu
From the APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th Ed., an addendum to the print manual.
The Purdue OWL's APA Reference List section:
Look for a DOI in the publication information at the beginning or end of an article or document.
Provide the DOI or a URL.
Formatting References Citations
for Books
Italicize book titles.
Use sentence-style capitalization for book titles.
Use a colon between a title and a subtitle. Use an initial cap for the first letter of the subtitle.
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