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Transcript of Ancient Greece
The polis (city-state)
of Athens was named after the
Early on, Athens was ruled by a king.
Athenian government evolved from a
monarchy to an aristocracy (privileged
Under the aristocracy, ordinary people resented the power and wealth of the nobles.
Athens moved closer to democracy in response to growing economic discontent by farmers.
a limited democracy
(government by the people)
The Athenians were the first ones
credited with establishing government
with democratic elements.
Athenian democracy was limited in comparison with today's standards.
Only men could participate - women were seen as inferior beings
who needed moral guidance.
Slaves could not participate in the
government - no political rights or personal
freedoms were granted to them.
Citizenship was severely restricted
Women were denied political and legal rights
They could not hold office, attend assembly , or even
Managing a houseshold
Athenian women lived in strict seclusion (away from others)
and husbands and wives lived in separated parts of the house
Athenians were allowed
to develop their own individual talents
Athenians studied arithmetic, literature, music, and physical education
Athenian boys were required to take 2 years of military training
Imported 80 % of grain
Trade was highly important!!
Athenians placed more emphasis on family life than the Spartans
Poorer Athenian families lived and worked together and spend more time as a family unit than wealthier Athenian families.
War and Decline
The Peloponnesian War ended Athenian greatness, caused the decline of Athens economy and damaged their democratic government.
Even though Athens lost the Peloponnesian War, the city remained a culture and intellectual center.
Ephors supervised the helots (slaves)
Helots outnumbered citizens 20:1 so Sparta had strong army to put down uprisings
If babies were born weak or ill, they were placed on mountainside to die of exposure so that they would not bring down society and army
The Spartan Government
Monarchy headed by 2 kings
Council of 28 elders advised the kings and an assembly of Spartan citizens met to approve all government decisions
Gave their approval during meetings by shouting loudly
Each year, assembly elected 5 overseers, ephors, to direct daily affairs
Agriculture only permitted occupation
Equality highly valued
If did not produce enough, lost citizenship
Non-citizens could be merchants, became wealthy
Helots farmed soil for masters, only small portion allowed to be kept for themselves
Bitterly resented the Spartans
Spartans feared rebellion so declared war on helots once a year to kill any who seemed rebellious
Girls domesticated but learned military skills
Boys were taught to be good citizens
Boys were trained for army:
Boys lived in barracks form age 7 - 30
Learned gymnastics, athletics
Learned the Iliad and songs of war and religion
It was not important
to learn to read or write
Encouraged to steal to cultivate
students to develop
Taught defense skills
Bore sons for army
Spartans had much less family life than Athenians
Males were supposed to spend most of their time with other members of the army
so that they would be more loyal
Small boys were taken away from families to be trained for army
Men could marry but could not live with their wives until they were about 30 years old
Sparta created the Peloponnesian League with other surrounding city-states.
If Sparta went to war, these states had to follow them.
Prevents unity but
Mountains & Rocky Soil:
Supported olives but not a variety of produce
Focus shifted to fishing
Had to import grain
Safe harbors for ships
Fishing, trade, travel
Warm climate (think Atlanta, GA --Remember, same latitude means same climate)
creates outdoor-based culture
Persia (Asia Minor)
Cause: Persia overtook Ionia,
a region where Greeks lived.
The Ionian Greeks revolted,
Athens sent them aid.
King Darius of Persia puts
down rebellion but vows revenge
Cause: Tensions between city-states
was growing for years. Sparta resented
Athenian naval supremacy. The city-state leaders pushed for war between
Sparta allied with Persians
Over swept Athenian country side
and burned food supply.
Leader of Athens, Pericles, has all
Athenians come into safe hold of city
Plague killed 1/2 - 2/3 of Athenian population, including Pericles
Athens sends 27,000
soldiers to overtake
Spartan ally, Syracuse.
Athens defeated and finally
surrenders to Sparta.
Battle of Thermopylae:
King Xerxes wants to avenge Persian defeat.
Greek city-states now divided except Athens & Sparta.
Xerxes army comes to narrow pass, Thermopylae.
3 day battle.
Spartans held pass to allow other Greek states to retreat. All Spartans killed.
Battle of Salamis:
Athens fought Persians in naval battle at Salamis. Greek fleet defeated Persians while Spartans defeated them on land at Battle of Plataea
The Persian Wars - 490 B.C. - 479 B.C.
The Peloponnesian War - 431 B.C. - 404 B.C.
Battle of Marathon:
Greeks outnumbered 25000 to 10000.
Greek phalanxes superior and win.
Sends Pheidippides to run to Athens
to tell of victory so that Athens will not
give up city-state to Persia.
Pheidippides runs 26 miles to deliver message,
dies at end.
"They [the Athenians] were destroyed with a total destruction - their fleet, their army- there was nothing that was not destroyed, and few out of many returned home" - Thucydides, Athenian historian
1. Persian Empire's expansion was stopped
2. Greeks, especially Athenians, gained great confidence, which resulted in the Golden Age of Athens
1. Athens' economy, and democracy, were ruined - a monarchy was reestablished
2. Athens population decreased
3. Sparta eventually was taken over by Thebes
4. Greece was weakened. Philip and Alexander the Great of Macedonia were able to conquer many of the Greek city-states
3. The mixing of Macedonian and Greke culture led to a new Hellenistic culture
Athenian boys went to school from age 6 -14 and then went for additional schooling.
At 18, they attended military school until age 20.
Compare and Contrast
The Parthenon in Athens
The Lincoln Memorial, D.C.
Write down 3 words that you
think best describes the Parthenon.
How would you classify
What can you
infer about Greek
values from this
Compare and contrast
the Parthenon to the Lincoln
Memorial. How are they they same? Different?
Why do you think the USA
copied Greek architecture?
Neo = New
The Parthenon is a temple on the Athenian Acropolis, dedicated to Athena, the patron goddess of Athens.
The Greek Amphitheater
The Brookhaven Amphitheater
Theater was a part of a a religious ceremony for the Greeks to celebrate their god, Dionysus.
What is the purpose of theater in our culture?
Value of perfection=
Ionic columns, reflect
balance and perfection of
Which river did Alexander's troops need to
cross in Persia?
Where did Alexander's
route of conquest begin?
Where was the
center of Hellenistic
Why do you think it
was established here?
Maritime trade led to socio-economic tensions between Athenian aristocracy and small landowners.
Greek colonies developed as trading centers for fish, fur, metals, honey, gold, amber, slaves.
Polis = city-state
Developed out of political chaos
Economic, cultural, and political centers
Independent = different political institutions
Why do you think there were so many capitals named "Alexandria"?