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Chapter 4 Section 2 The Rise of Greek City States
Transcript of Chapter 4 Section 2 The Rise of Greek City States
Aegean and Mediterranean Seas
As important as the Nile was to Egypt
Equally as important are the mountains
that separated the city-states from each other
Geographic features helped the Greek city-states develop unique cultures and methods of government
No empires like Egypt because of geography
Small city-states arise in the place of large empires
Most city-states developed on bays, inlets or the sea
The Greeks naturally became great sailors
Commodities traded: Marble, wheat, wine, metals...
most important: olive oil
Like the Minoans - Greeks adopted parts of other cultures
Greek Alphabet, taken from Phoenician
The Greeks had a word to describe their city-states and the farms that surrounded them -
As cities grew, the higher, fortified portions became known as:
contained various fortresses and temples, while the lower, flatters grounds around it contained still more temples, theaters, homes, and businesses. Together with outlaying farms, the entire area was the
Small populations made Greek citizens feel more pride in their communities.
But what is a citizen?
: Free born, land owning men, over the age of 30
Citizens spent much time in the marketplace debating how best to conduct the affairs of their city.
Each city state had a god or goddess that was special to them
Example: Athens - The goddess Athena
750BC - 500 BC
Various forms of government in city-states
Lets take a look
Earliest form of government:
- king is in charge
Next form of government:
- government run by the wealthy
land owning elite, or, the
More on government later - lets talk about something more fun - war.
650s BC and before: only the rich make war
Why? - it's expensive!
After the 650s BC: Iron working is discovered - now weapons are cheap!
Every citizen can now fight for their city
New weapons called for new military tactics:
- a huge formation of highly trained soldiers wielding lances (very long spears)
The long hours of drilling required to execute complex military tactic like the phalanx had two results:
1. The creation of professional soldiers
2. A very strong sense of unity between citizen-soldiers (think National Guard or Army Reserve or a football team)
Let's compare Sparta and Athens now....
Sparta: Descendants of the old Dorian invaders
The Spartans held local slaves called
Helots were treated brutally under a very strict system of discipline
Daily life in Sparta:
New born babies -
examines for health; sickly babies abandoned to die (exposure)
- healthy babies raised as soldiers
Age 7 - boys moved into barracks (where soldiers live)
Child soldiers were raised on course diets, hard discipline, and constant military training
To encourage strategy, children were encouraged to steal food (to supplement their small diet) but if they were caught, they were severely beaten
Age 20 - a man can marry....
age 30 - a man can finally live with his wife
Women of Sparta:
Expected to give birth to healthy children and so forced to exercise and be strong
Could inherit property
Ran business because men were busy with war
Sparta was isolated:
Citizens forbidden to travel
Spartans had no use for arts, culture, new ideas
By 700BC wealthy land owners held power
Average citizen had little power, and resented the wealthy land owners
Many social inequalities existed
This went on for another 100 or so years
Solon - Reforms included:
Outlawing 'debt slavery'
Freeing the 'debt slaves'
Government offices open to all citizens
' come to power
creates a council to debate the workings of the government.
- debates, approves, or denies laws
All Athenian citizens could vote
a black shard of pottery for no, white for yes
Athenians guarded their democracy closely.
Athenian women: no role in politics, but ran their households and lived a secluded existence
Athenian youth: boys learned reading, writing, music, poetry, and public speaking in school. They received military training but not on the level of Spartans
King of the gods
wife of Zeus
god of war
goddess of wisdom
goddess of love
The gods lived atop Mount Olympus
Priests and priestesses worshiped and interpreted the will of the gods.
Religion was important, but more of a set of guidelines and a way of preserving Greek culture. Greek philosophers believed that the universe was governed not by gods, but by natural laws.
Why did unique
develop in Ancient Greece rather than empires?
Just like small towns/schools have more pride in their communities.
What made waging war cheaper after 650 BC?
What is a phalanx?
Where did women have more rights?
What were the occupations of Athenians?
What was the main occupation of Spartan men?
Compare Sparta and Athens:
What did young boys do in Athens?
What did young boys do in Sparta?
Name two the main reforms Solon made.
What reforms did Cleisthenes make?