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Nursing in Islam

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Nafiseh Es

on 25 November 2013

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Transcript of Nursing in Islam

Nursing in Islam
Presented by:
Nafiseh Esmaeili

Rufaidah Bint
Defining attributes of Nursing in Arabic and Persian Languages
The closest terms to the word nursing in Islamic narrations and dictionaries (based on Arabic and Persian language) are: caring ( [Moragebat]) (Davar Panah, 1996b), keeping ( [Negahdary/Siaanat]), protection ( [Hefz]), and patronage ( [Kefalat/Sarparasty]) (Davar Panah, 1996a). Interpretations, books, and verses define caring as an internal affair ordained by God (Tabatabaee, 2009).
In religious books, the term caring has primarily been used to refer to self-keeping without any external provenance.

Nursing history in Islam- Who was Rufaida Bint Sa'ad?
Definition of Nursing in Islam
Uses of the concept of Nursing in Islam
Defining Attributes( Based on Arabic and Persian Languages)
Perception of Muslims towards health and illness
Comparison between Nursing in Islam and Nursing in Western theories of Nursing
Rufaida Al-Aslamiyyah(Bint-Sa'ad) lived at the time of Prophet Mohammad(8th century).
Recognized as the first professional nurse in Islam and Arab world.
She was referred as 'Asiya'
She called " Mother of Nursing"
Rufaidah Personal background:
She was born in the tribe of Bani Aslam of the Khazraj tribal confederation in Madina.
Her father was physician and she learned medical care by working as his assistance.
Her history illustrates all the attributes expected of a good nurse. She was kind and empathetic,capable leader and organizer able to mobilize and get others to produce good work and she had great clinical skills.
Rufaidah performances as a Nurse:
Managing hospital field tent during peace time
Nursing people( both men and women) during peace time.
Assisting every Muslim in need: the poor, the orphans, or the handicapped. She looked after the orphans, nursed them, and taught them.
Giving spiritual cares to the patient ( human touch the most important aspect of nursing).
Rufaidah Performances as a social worker
A unique contribution of Rufaidah was acknowledging a commiunity nursing by going out to the community and trying to solve problems that led to diseases.
Training nurses in a school that she founded.
Participating in holy wars by keeping several tasks during the wars with partnership of : Umm Ammara, Aminah, Umm Ayman, Safiyat, Umm Sulaim, and Hind that history recorded their names.
Rufaidah as a "Mother of Nursing":
she deserves to be called Mother of Nursing because She is the first nurse, the founder of first nursing school, the establisher of the first code of conduct and ethics, and the first leader in the nursing field (Miller, 2007).
Although all the Western literature relate the initiative step in nursing for the “Lady of the lamp” Florence Nightingale (Timby, 2007), the Islamic literature has a different view. Islamic history recorded Rufaida Al-Aslamiyyah as pioneer and inspiration for the nursing profession in Muslim world.

Definition of Nursing in Islam
Definition of Nursing depends on the different factors such as culture, religion,etc. Nursing as a term and concept has other assumptions and dimensions depending on the intellectual, cultural, social, and philosophical tendencies of experts in theory.
Definitions of nursing seek to realize two main goals.
Nursing in Islamic culture and from the Islamic perspective. ( Challenges of nursing practice according to Islam).
Challenges of Nursing that are of interest of Muslims
Gender ( the most controversial aspect of nursing in Islam)
Uses of the concept of nursing in Islam
Interpretations for word " Nursing"
The term “nursing” has been used in some Quran interpretations including:
1. Interpretation of Sura Fajr, verse 17 (Tayeb, 1999); Sura Zoha, verses 9–11 (Tayeb, 1999). And in the book Atyab Al Bayan fi Tafsire Al-Quran, vol. 14, pp. 107–108 where the keeping and caring of orphans has been interpreted as nursing (Tayeb, 1999).
2. Al-Mizan commentary, vol. 17, (Tabatabaee, 1995) in interpretation of the verses 43 and 44 of Sura, Saad refers to prophet Ayyub as “patient” and his wife as a “nurse” who
cares for him.

What does the word" Nursing" means?
1. Nahj Ol-Balagheh: The word “nurse” is the translation of the Arabic word “Al-Momarez,” which has been used in Nahj Ol-Balaghe, Speech no. 219: Until his Al-Momarez (nurse) tries (Qureshi Banaee, 1992).
2. Quran: The word in Sura Taha verse 40 has been translated as nursing by some experts, including Saffarzade (Saffarzade, 2001), Irving translation, (Ironik, 2009), Qaraee (Qaraee, 2009), and Pickthall (2001). In some cases, the term has been translated into “maintain” and “charge”.
Saffarzade translation is the most precise and appropriate for defining the term “nursing.”
Interpretations cont.
3. The interpretation of verses 36–38 Sura, Josef refers to his concerns about the prisoners as “nursing”; perhaps these verses are among the documents, which refer to “nursing” with the highest frequency (Qureshi Banaee, 1998; Saqafi Tehrani, 1978). Apparently, prophet Josef used to care for the prisoners in all aspects. He was concerned about both their bodies and their spirits. The prisoners had confidence in him.

Interpretations cont.
4. Interpretation of Sura Al-Emran
verses 35–44 (Ameli, 1981): They differed in nursing Mary, and they were competing with each other to attain the honor of taking care (nursing) of Mary because she was from the messengers and Israeli rulers' race. Zachariah said, “I'm competent to care her because her sister is under my patronage”; they said if that is the case, then her mother is closest to her. As a result, the fate fell in the hands of Zachariah.
A review of Quran texts
A review of the Quran texts enables us to make inferences regarding the term nursing :

1.The prophet Ayyub was nursed by his wife when he was very sick and sad (because of his children's death, people's hatred and scandal). Ayyub suffered from a disease that left bodily sores.

2.Nursing the orphans as their parent rather than providing only financial support; a good instance is Zachariah's nursing of Mary.

A review of Quran texts cont.
3. Nursing of the prisoners by Josef in all aspects in order to meet their needs for clothes and displacement. Moreover, Joseph was responsible for helping and guiding prisoners, an example of the educational aspect of his mission.

4. Nursing of the child by his/her mother, where the word mother appears alongside the word nursing.

Generally, it seems that nursing is deemed similar to motherhood, an overall caring in which physical factors are not considered as priority.
Model Case
Seemingly, the prophet Josef's nursing model is the best model for nursing, considering the Islamic books and interpretations (Makarem Shirazi, 1995; Najafi Khomaini, 1978;Qaraati, 2004; Rashid Al-Dine Maybodi, 1992).
In Islamic culture, nursing is the act of guiding a person toward a solution (remediation) with feminine criteria. It is similar to motherhood, but without instinctive motherhood characteristics such as giving birth to a child.
One definition of nursing is the goodness and beneficence that family members show to each other (according to Zachariah story in Quran).
Model Case cont.
. In the Quran, it seems that the relationship among family members is a model for nursing, which entails affection, love, compassion, and kindness. Even though family nursing is considered more favorably by Islam, the practice is not restricted to family members and relatives (e.g., Joseph and the prisoners). Therefore, nurses should implement their learned remedies according to love, compassion, and kindness.
The other important point concerning nursing is that most in the Islamic world tend to be female (Majlesi, 1984a, 1984b, 1984c; Tabatabaee,
(a)Nursing is a nurturer seeking remedies for others, covering all human aspects, and superior to caring. Nurses foster human potential and guide those who are in need or not knowledgeable.

Characteristics of Nursing according to holy Quran and Islamic commenteries :
(b) Nursing is patient centered and conducted based on the apparent or hidden request of the patient(care seeker).
(c) Nursing has characteristics similar to motherhood;however, it is not practiced exclusively by women, rather it possesses mother-like spirit and requirements.
d) The process of nursing develops the values
and capacities of the nurse contributing to
Perception of Muslims towards health and illness
Muslim patients’ perception of health and illness slots in the notion of accepting illness and death with patience, meditation and prayers. In the Muslim patients’ understanding, illness, suffering and dying are natural part of life and a test from Allah .
'Be sure we shall test you with something of fear, hunger, some loss In wealth, lives or the produce (of your toil), but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere (Ai-Baqarah 2:155) (Rasool, 2000).
seeking treatment for illness is not
considered as a sign of conflict with
confidence on Allah for a cure.
Comparison between Nursing in Islam and Nursing in Western Theories of Nursing:
As mentioned, the concept of nursing has a broad meaning in Islam; here we will compare it with some important nursing theories: Watson's theory reflects caring theories; Henderson's theory embodies need and body-centered theories; King's theory characterizes reflects interactive theories; and Johnson's theory represents consequence theories (Melise, 2007).
Henderson Theory
View of Nursing
Help the individual become independent based on 14 activities
Goals of Nursing
Completeness and independent of patient to perform daily activities.
Nursing Problems
Lack of knowledge and strength to carry out 14 activities.
King's Theory
View of Nursing
A process of action, reaction, and interaction between nurse and client that leads to goal attainment in an environment.
Goals of Nursing
Help individuals maintain their health so they can function in their role.
Nursing Problems
When nurse and patient do not perceive each other and goals are not attained.
Johnson Theory
View of Nursing
External regulatory force acting to preserve the organization and integration of patient's behavior at an optimal level.
Goals of Nursing
Behavior system balance, subsystems that function efficiently and effectively.
Nursing Problems
Structural functional stress in systems .
Watson Theory
View of Nursing
Nursing is human science consisting of knowledge, thought, values, philosophy, commitment and action with passion in human care transaction. Allow human beings to determine and find their own meaning.
Goals of Nursing
Mental and spiritual growth for human beings.
Finding meaning in one's own existence and experience.

Nursing Problems
Imbalance caused by deficit in human transcending
Disharmony between person and world

View of Nursing
Nursing is an anthropology science.
Nursing concentrates on perfection and remediation of human being based on request (apparent—hidden) of human.
Human has superior capabilities and a nurse is responsible for promoting them in all aspects (holistic approach).

Goals of Nursing
Seeking remedy to human for acting based on nature.
Nursing is remediation of all human's aspects (body- spirit).
Nature is created by God and is not rooted in experiences.
Nursing Problems
Human moves and acts based on the nature to achieve the highest form of health. However, there are problems and barriers in this way, and nurse is seeking remedy for these problems and barriers.
In Islam, every human being has a nature that is created by God.
Humans will achieve physical and spiritual health if they live according to their nature. What is more valuable to humans, however, is to achieve spiritual health by the help of body.
Nursing based on the human's nature and the role of nursing as a nurturer seeking healing promotes this role creatively and enhances its position serving the patient through educating him/her.
The nurse is not responsible to help or care for the patient, rather he/she supports the patient's healing based on his/her demand, and, i.e., caring is only part of a nurse's functions.
According to Islamic definition of the concept of nursing, a person has superior capabilities and a nurse is responsible for promoting them in all aspects.
Islamic Nursing Uniforms
Islamic republic of Iran
Online Library(http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111j.2047-3095.2013.01244.x/full)
Nursing in Islam (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nursing_in_Islam
Aga Khan University ( http://sjpaderborn.wordpress.com/2012/05/27/who-was-rufayda-al-aslamiya-the-first-muslim-female-nurse-given-tributes-by-aga-khan-university-during-oath-taking-ceremonies/).
Dr.Omar Kasule(http://www.everymuslim.co.za/index.php/articles-menu/islamic-medicine-menu/1689-founder-of-the-nursing-profession-in-islam)
Full transcript