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Blood,Fluids and Immune
Transcript of Blood,Fluids and Immune
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids originating from inside the bodies of living people. They include fluids that are excreted or secreted from the body as well as body water that normally is not.
Blood is composed of a solid portion called plasma. Blood cells make up 45% of the total blood volume, and plasma makes up the other 55%.
The solid portion of blood is composed of three different types of cells:
Lymph moves in one directo to prevent pathogens from flowing through the entire body. The system filters out the microorganisms as the lymph passes through its various capillaries, vessels, and nodes. Lymph travels in the following sequence:
Specific immunity may be either genetic -or acquired. Specific immunity is dependent on the body's ability to identify a pathogen and prepare a specific response (antibody) to only that invader (antigen). antibodies are also referred to as immunoglobulins (lg). Specific immunity is dependent on the agraulocytes (lymphocytes and monocytes) for its function.
Acquired immunity is categorized as active or passive and then is further subcategorized as natural or artificial. All describe ways that the body has acquired antibodies to specific diseases.
INSTITUTO DE ESTUDIOS SUPERIORES DE CHIAPAS
FACULTAD DE MEDICINA
BLOOD, LYMPH AND IMMUNE
Ninive Pouleth Cruz Cruz
Human blood is divided into four major different types: A, B, Ab, and O. The differences are due to antigens present on the surface of the blood cells. Antigens are substances that produce an immune reaction by their nature of being perceived as foreign to the body. In response, the body produces substances called antibodies that nullify or neutralize the antigens. In blood, these antigens are called agglutinogens because their presence can cause the blood to clot.
Intracellular fluid or cytoplasmic matrix is the liquid found inside cells.
It is separated into compartments by membranes. For example, the mitochondrial matrix separates the mitochondrion into compartments.
Body fluids and health
Universal precautions and safer sex practices try to avoid exchanges of body fluids. Body fluids can be analysed in medical laboratory in order to find microbes, inflammation, cancers, etc.
Bodily fluids in religion and history
Many bodily fluids are regarded with varying levels of disgust among world cultures, including the Abrahamic faiths (Christianity, Islam, Judaism) and Hinduism. On the other hand, blood plays an important symbolic role in Catholicism: the saved in paradise are said to be "have washed their robes in the blood of the Lamb" Revelation 7:14. In the eucharistic meal, the faithful eat and drink consecrated bread and wine. The dogma of transubstantiation states that the bread and the wine become the flesh and blood of Christ. There are many churches dedicated to the Holy Blood of Christ and there blood relics of saints such as San Gennaro.
Body fluids in forensic science
The term body fluid is used in a forensic science context to refer to items of biological evidence.
Body fluid therefore refers to not only to typical body liquids such as blood or semen, but to any item of trace evidence with a biological origin, including hair, bone, teeth, faeces and skin or muscle tissue
Methods of sampling of body fluids include:
Extracellular fluid (ECF) or extracellular fluid volume.
Usually denotes all body fluid outside of cells
Intravascular fluid (blood plasma)
Arterial blood, such as radial artery puncture
Blood sampling for any blood test, in turn including:
Venous blood, also called venipuncture
Is a diagnostic and at times therapeutic procedure that is performed to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid for biochemical, microbiological, and cytological analysis, or very rarely as a treatment to relieve increased intracranial pressure.
Is an invasive procedure to remove fluid or air from the pleural space for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections, and also used for sex determination in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues.
The erythrocytes (which are normally present in the millions) have the important function of transport O2 and CO2 throughout the body. The vehicle for this transportation is a protein-iron pigment called hemoglobin.
The formation of RBCs in the bone marrow is stimulated by a hormone from the kidneys called erythropoietin. RBCs have a life span of approximately 120 days, after which they decompose into hemosiderin, an iron pigment resulting from hemolysis and bilirubin. The iron is stored in the liver to be recycled into new RBCs, and the bile pigments are excreted via the liver.
Although there are fewer leukocytes, there are different types with different functions. In general, protect the body from invasion by pathogens. The different types of cells provide this defense in a number of different ways. There are two main types of White Blood Cells:
Named for their appearance, granulocytes also called polymorphonucleocytes have small grains within the cytoplasm and multilobed nuclei. Both names are used interchangeably.
These are three types of granulocytes, each with its own function. Each of them is named for the type of dye that it attracts.
Are cells that absorb an acidic dye, causing them to appear reddish. An increase in eosinophils is a response to a need for their function in defending the body against allergens and parasites.
Are cells that absorb a basic (or alkaline) dye and stain a bluish color. Especially effective in combating parasites, they release histamine (a substance that initiates an inflammatory response) and heparin (an anticoagulant), both of which are instrumental in healing damaged tissue
Are cells that do not absorb either an acidic or basic dye and consequently are a purplish color. They are also called phagocytes because they specialize in phagocytosis and generally combat bacteria in pyogenic infections.
Are cells named for their lack of granules. The alternative names, mononuclear leucocytes, is so given because they have one nucleus. Both names are used interchangeably. Although these cells originate in the bone marrow, they mature after entering the lymphatic system. There are two types of these cells
These cells, named for their single, large nucleus, transform into macrophages, which eat pathogens and are effective against severe infections.
These cells are key in what is called the immune response, which involves the "recognition" of dangerous, foreign (viral) substances, and the manufacture of their neutralizers. The foreign substances are called antigens, and the neutralizers are called antibodies
Platelets have a round or oval shape and are so named because they look like small plates. Platelets aid in the process of coagulation, the process of changing a liquid to a solid. When blood cells escape their normal vessels, they agglutinate, or clump together, by the following process: First, they release factor X, which, in the presence of calcium, reacts with the blood protein, prothrombin, to form thrombin. Thrombin then converts another blood protein, fibrinogen, to fibrin, which eventually forms a mesh like fibrin clot, achieving hemostasis.
, the liquid portion of blood, is composed of the following:
Water, or H2O (90%)
Inorganic substances (calcium, potassium, sodium)
Organic substances (glucose, amino acids, fats, cholesterol, hormones)
Waste products (urea, uric acid, ammonia, creatinine)
Plasma proteins (serum albumin, serum globulin, and two clotting proteins: fibrinogen and prothrombin)
is plasma minus the clotting proteins. Serology is the branch of laboratory medicine that studies blood serum for evidence of infection by evaluating antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
1.-From the interstitial spaces between the cells
Toward the heart through lymphatic capillaries.
4.- To the lymphatic nodes that filter the debris that has been collected through the use of macrophages.
5.- Then to either the right lymphatic duct, which empty into the large subclavian veins in the neck
3.-To lymphatic vessels that carry lymph using a valvular system
6.- Once in the venous blood, the lymph is then recycled through the body through the circulatory system.
Monocytes metamorphose into macrophages, which dispose of foreign substances.
The T cells neutralize their enemies through a process of cell-mediated immunity. They are effective against fungi, cancer cells, protozoa, and unfortunately, organ transplants.
B cells use a process of humoral immunity. This means that they secrete antibodies to "poison" their enemies.
Active Acquired Immunity
Natural: Development of memory cells to protect the individual from a second exposure.
Natural: Passage of antibodies through the placenta or breast milk.
Artificial: Use of immunoglobulins harvested from a donor who developed resistance against specific antigens
Artificial: Vaccination that uses a greatly weakened form of the antigen, thus enabling the body to develop antibodies in response to this intentional exposure.