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Transcript of Genetics
Mendel started our understanding of genetics by studying simple traits
Using Mendelian Genetics
Reading the letters on a punnett square tell you what the offspring may look like and which options are more likely
Reading Punnett Squares
Mendel used the mathematics of probability to study how likely specific traits were to occur
Gregor Mendel Was an austrian monk who used math and pea plants to develop our modern understanding of genetics
By tracking specific traits over many generations Mendel
was able to learn how traits are inherited
By intentionally breeding two purebred
pea plants Mendel saw how alleles combine
Mendel observed that not all traits followed is principles of inheritance
Parent alleles are split up in different sex cells during meiosis
When sex cells combine there are many different possible combinations of alleles
The passing of traits from on generation to the next is called heredity
Our genes are the codes we all need to function
Alleles are the different forms a gene can take
We all have the same genes
We all have different mixtures of alleles
When two pea plants with different traits were crossed they were called hybrids
An organism that only produces offspring of one type is called a pure bred
He observed that some traits were not visible in any of the offspring and others always appeared
Dominant alleles are able to cover up or hide other forms of the same gene
Recessive alleles are hidden or covered up by dominant forms of the same gene
Punnett Squares allow us to see the possible offspring without actually breeding life forms to see what happens
Parent alleles are on the outside and possible offspring are found in the middle
Capitol letters show dominant alleles and lower case show recessive alleles
Different letters represent different genes
The genetic make up of the letters is called the organisms genotype
If a genotype contains two of the same alleles it is called homozygous
The physical appearance that results from a genotype is the phenotype
If a genotype contains two different alleles it is called heterozygous
We can use the basic principles he discovered to study multiple traits and learn a lot about how traits are passed down.
He also saw that different organisms inherit traits differently
Scientists used Mendel's principles to develop modern genetic theory with a wide variety of different types of genes