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Chicago Architecture

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by

Kevin Flores

on 5 February 2014

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Transcript of Chicago Architecture

Chicago Architecture
By Kevin Flores and
Daniel Oyarzún

Louis Henry Sullivan
(September 3, 1856-April 14, 1924)

His Philosophy/ Style
"Form follows function."
Chicago Stock
Exchange Building
“father of skyscrapers,”and, “godfather of Chicago school.”
Carson, Pirie and Scott
Department Store / Sullivan Center
Began career in Philadelphia but moved to Chicago after the fire
The Chicago Fire of 1871
A large portion of Chicago
was destroyed
Exponential increase in population
Need for new buildings
New styles of architecture
Purpose leads to design
Buildings followed the form of the classical column
Emerging Styles (1870-1920)
Chicago School/ Commercial Style
Prairie Style
Developed by several architects
Common use of steel frame and terracotta
Origin of the Chicago window
Division of building into sections
Usually topped off with a cornice
Vertical emphasis
Mainly developed by Frank Lloyd Wright
Horizontal, not vertical emphasis
Flat, overhanging roof
Horizontal grouping of long and low windows
Common use of colored glass
Often included Art Nouveau ornaments
Continued
Sometimes added features of the Palazzo Style
Frank Loyd Wright
(June 8, 1867 - April 9, 1959)
believed in harmonizing structure with the natural environment, a philosophy he called "Organic Structure."
A Prairie School leader
In 1991, the American Institute of Architects said he was "the greatest American architect of all time."
In Chicago Style:
Steel frame
Chicago windows
Designed in column form:
Base
Shaft
Cornice
Vertical emphasis
Palazzo features:
Arched windows
Arched entrance
Building demolished in 1972
The arch over the entrance is now part of the Art Institute of Chicago
Winslow House (1893)
Constructed out of terracotta and cast iron
You can see aspects of Art Nouveau
First building to use Caisson foundation
Steel frame
More windows
Inside merchandise
easily visible
Built out of terracotta and not quarry stone
Complex Art Nouveau style entrance design
Attract customers
Gage Group Building
Facade is mostly made up of neat arrangement of windows
Robie House (1909)
Cornice with Art Nouveau style decorations
Prudential Building
Wright's first major and independent work
One of his first Prairie style homes
One of his last Prairie homes
Arthur B. Heurtley House (1902)
Thomas H. Gale House
Gale House shows a transition into Prairie style:
Overhanging roof
Rows of windows
Holabird and Roche
Horizontal design on body of structure
The firm was founded in 1881 by William Holabird and Martin Roche
Holabird came to Chicago in 1875 and Roche was born and raised in Chicago.
They greatly influenced the “Chicago School”

Chicago Building (1904 - 1905)
Fallingwater: (Mill Run, Pennsylvania)
Burnham and Root
John Wellborn Root moved to Chicago in 1871 where he met Daniel Burnham and created the Burnham and Root firm two years later.
Firm lasted 18 years
Root created the floating raft system
Marquette Building (1895)
Daniel Burnham:
(September 4, 1846 - June 1, 1912)
John Wellborn Root:
(January 10, 1850 – January 15, 1891)

Organic Architecture:
Promoted the Chicago school style, using it in most of their work
Their Buildings:
Fischer Building
Old Colony Building (1894)
Reliance Building
The rounded corner bays are a common feature of early skyscrapers.
The Chicago World’s Fair of 1893
Celebrated 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’ arrival in the New World
Covered +600 acres
Nearly 200 new temporary buildings were built

The Monadnock Building
Holabird and Roche built the East half (1893) shortly after Burnham and Root built the North half (1891).
Why was Chicago architecture so important and influential to the rest of the U.S.?
Chicago's innovative usage of the steel frame and resulting new styles and structural abilities in architecture inspired the rest of the coutry with its originality.
North
East
East
Full transcript