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History and TOK

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Daniel Santella

on 17 August 2016

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Transcript of History and TOK

BUILDS
HISTORY & THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE
1995
2000
2010
1990
2005
History and TOK Framework
HOW DO WE KNOW
HISTORY
IS THERE
HISTORY
HISTORY
TOK and History Vocabulary
Historiography : Reliability : National Bias : Ideological Bias : Evidence : Schools of Thought : Postmodernism : Great Man Theory : Structuralists : Marxist Historians : Economic Determinism : Hindsight : Hindsight Bias : Primary Source : Secondary Source : Confirmation Bias : Self Realizing Expectations : Propaganda : Revisionism : Social History : Political History : Objectivity : Subjectivity : Hegel : Thesis : Antithesis : Synthesis : Hueristic : EH Carr : Leopold Von Ranke : Criticism :
PAST TOK QUESTIONS
QUOTES TO PONDER
“Knowledge is nothing more than the systematic organization of facts.” Discuss this statement in relation to two areas of knowledge.
“That which is accepted as knowledge today is sometimes discarded tomorrow.” Consider knowledge issues raised by this statement in two areas of knowledge.
“The historian’s task is to understand the past; the human scientist, by contrast, is looking to change the future.” To what extent is this true in these areas of knowledge?
“A skeptic is one who is willing to question any knowledge claim, asking for clarity in definition, consistency in logic and adequacy of evidence” (adapted from Paul Kurtz, 1994). Evaluate this approach in two areas of knowledge.
“The task of history is the discovering of the constant and universal principles of human nature.” To what extent are history and one other area of knowledge successful in this task?
“… our knowledge is only a collection of scraps and fragments that we put together into a pleasing design, and often the discovery of one new fragment would cause us to alter utterly the whole design” (Morris Bishop). To what extent is this true in history and one other area of knowledge?
“Knowledge gives us a sense of who we are.” To what extent is this true in the human sciences and one other area of knowledge?
Can we know when to trust our emotions in the pursuit of knowledge? Consider history and one other area of knowledge.

IS BORING!
IS JUST MEMORIZING FACTS!
HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH ME!
POWER
EQUALS
HISTORY
ANGRY
MAKES PEOPLE
WHAT WE KNOW
ABOUT HISTORY?
HISTORICAL
TRUTH?
'Historical facts are like fish swimming about in a vast and inaccessible ocean; and what the historian catches will depend partly on chance, but
mainly on what part of the ocean he chooses to fish in and what tackle he chooses to use - these two factors being, of course, determined by the kind of fish he wants to catch.'
EH Carr, Historian. 1961.
HOPEFULLY FROM GOOD HISTORIANS
WHAT IS A GOOD HISTORIAN?
HW: Write a short autobiography and bring it to class with you so you can share with your classmates. 300 words, hard copy.
POSTMODERNISM
"Who
controls
the past
controls
the future; who
controls
the present
controls
the past."
What We Want You To Know
BY: The Government
1984
GEORGE ORWELL'S
How does Orwell's passage show that those who control the present, control the past and the future?
Who is Withers? What happens to him?
Who is Ogilvy? What happens to him?
Who is Winston? What is his job?
HISTORY TEXT
PUBLIC BROADCASTING SYSTEMS
"THE TANK MAN"
Watch 1:04:00 to 1:08:00
IMAGES
& HISTORY
IE
MY TEACHER TOLD ME
LIES
Read the Chapter "See No Evil: Choosing Not to Look at the War in Vietnam" for next class.
Why don't these students know the picture?
THE
ENOLA GAY
"We urge Japan to adopt a correct attitude on questions of
history
, earnestly face the calls for justice from its Asian neighbors and the international community, and end all provocative acts which run counter to the tide of the times."
CHINESE PROTESTS OVER JAPANESE LEADER'S VISIT TO
YASAKUNI SHRINE
"ARE YOU SCARED BEING
A
HISTORY
TEACHER?"
Will the narrative I teach be the same that students learn at home or in their community?
How will the community react if the narratives differ?
How will my school react to potential pressure from the community?"
ASSIGNMENT
Write a classroom skit where there is a conflict over the narrative being taught and perform it in front of the class.
NATIONAL EDUCATION
HONG KONG
IS HISTORY A SCIENCE?
METHODOLOGY
HISTORICAL
What steps would you go through as a historian to make sure your understanding of the past is reliable?
Rank the WOKs in order of importance to a historian. Be ready to explain your rankings.
THE HISTORICAL METHOD
What are the traits of a good historian?
THE MANIPULATION
OF HISTORICAL NARRATIVES
IS OFTEN SEEN IN UNDEMOCRATIC
STATES, BUT MANY DEMOCRATIC
STATES DO IT AS WELL, IT CAN
BE A BIT MORE SUBTLE
FOR POLITICAL & NATIONALIST GOALS
"AT TIMES....
Written by James Loewen as a critical look at what American students learn in their history classes through their textbooks.
Why do US textbooks generally avoid key aspects of the Vietnam War.
How is this type of censorship similar and different than the examples from China and North Korea?
What implications/consequences do you think this type of censorship has?
Simply to list these questions is to recognize that each of them is still controversial. Take the first, Some people still argue that the United States fought
in Vietnam to secure access to the country's valuable natural resources, The international good guy" approach noted in the last chapter would claim that we
fought to bring democracy to Vietnam's people. Perhaps more common are
analyses of our internal politics: Democratic Presidents Kennedy and Johnson,
having seen how Republicans castigated Truman for "losing" China, did not
want to be seen as "losing" Vietnam. One realpolitik approach stresses the
domino theory: while we know now that Vietnam's communists are antagonists
of China, we didn't then, and some leaders believed that if Vietnam "fell" to the
communists, so would Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Yet
another view is that America felt its prestige was on the line, so it did not want
a defeat in Vietnam, lest Pax Americana be threatened in Africa, South America,
or elsewhere in the world. Some conspiracy theorists go even further and
claim that big business fomented the war to help the economy. Other historians
take a longer view, arguing that our intervention in Vietnam derives from a cultural pattern of racism and imperialism that began with the first Indian war in
Virginia in 1622, continued in the nineteenth century with "Manifest Destiny,"
and is now winding down in the "American century," They point out that GIs
in Vietnam collected and displayed Vietnamese ears just as British colonists in
North America collected and displayed Indian scalps. A final view might be
that there was no clear cause and certainly no clear purpose, that we blundered
into the war because no subsequent administration had the courage to undo
our 1946 mistake of opposing a popular independence movement. "The
fundamental blunder with respect to Indochina was made after 1945," wrote
Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, when "our Government allowed itself to be
persuaded" by the French and British to restore France's colonial position in
Indochina."
Perhaps the seeds of America's tragic involvement with Vietnam were sown
at Versailles in 1918, when Woodrow Wilson failed to hear Ho Chi Minh's plea
for his country's independence. Perhaps they germinated when FDR's policy of
not helping the French recolonize Southeast Asia after World War II terminated
with his death, Since textbooks rarely suggest that the events of one period
caused events of the next, unsurprisingly, none of the textbooks I surveyed
looks before the 1950s to explain the Vietnam War.
KOREAN WAR IN TEXTBOOKS
Look over the differing accounts of the Korean War from textbooks. How are they similar? How are they different?
What do you suppose accounts for these differences?
What does this have to do with the Orwell quote?
As you read, write down the three most interesting things you learned and three questions you have.
LIES
"TODAY

IS
HISTORY"
ONE OF THE FIRST THING THE AMERICANS
DID AFTER INVADING IRAQ WAS TO REPLACE THE OLD TEXTBOOKS TO INCLUDE THINGS LIKE A MORE COMPREHENSIVE
VIEW OF THE
IRAN IRAQ WAR
AND THE
HISTORY OF THE KURDS
.
FACT
GROUPS of FOUR
SEE
THINK
WONDER
“Materials should promote citizenship, patriotism, essentials and benefits of the free enterprise system, respect for authority and respect for individual rights. Materials should not encourage or condone civil disorder, social strife or disregard of the law.”
ADVANCED PLACEMENT US HISTORY
STUDENT PROTESTS
2 Minute skit
15:00 to prepare
The district’s history curriculum
“should promote citizenship, patriotism, essentials and benefits of the free enterprise system, respect for authority and respect for individual rights.”
Enola Gay is the plane that dropped the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima
"Do you want to do an exhibit to make veterans feel good, or do you want an exhibition that will lead our visitors to think about the consequences of the atomic bombing of Japan? Frankly, I don't think we can do both."
-- Tom Crouch, NASM curator.
In the 1990s the Smithsonian Museum wanted to display the plane with an exhibit looking at the bombing, its justifications, and its consequences.
Protests by Veterans' groups claimed that the proposed exhibit was an insult to Americans who fought and died in the Pacific War because it focused too much on the suffering of the Japanese civilians.
Eventually the exhibition was canceled when no agreement could be reached
Be sure to include detailed information on what the different narratives believe and offer specific evidence that supports each claim.
Include the potential consequences of the conflicting narratives.
What similarities and differences do history and the sciences have in regards to methodology and purpose?
Read the document "Is History a Science" by Arthur Marwick for Homework
NO!
THERE ISN'T
OBJECTIVE
TRUTH
IN HISTORY
TRUTH EXISTS!
YES
of course
FILES
"THE TRUTH IS OUT THERE"
1. Heuristic: The search for sources.
2. Criticism: Appraisal of evidence based on reliability and value.
3. Synthesis & Presentation:
Assembly of historical data and presentation of historical narrative.
METHODOLOGY
In groups, complete a Venn diagram showing your ideas.
SUPERHEROES
H
H
What are the characteristics of a Superhero Historian?
OBJECTIVE
A ZEAL FOR TRUTH
INDUSTRIOUS
HONEST
FOCUSED
ANALYTICAL/CRITICAL
THOROUGH
CREATIVE
WRITE A WIKIPEDIA ENTRY DESCRIBING HISTORY MAN or HISTORY WOMAN.
HISTORY CAN HEAL
TRUTH AND RECONCILIATION
RELEVANT REAL LIFE SITUATIONS
& FILM
DIFFICULTIES FOR HISTORIANS
Work in small groups to complete the instructions on the Being the Historian Worksheets.
Be ready to report back to the class on your conclusions.
IDENTITY
WORD ASSOCIATION:
AFRICA
What does Amon Goethe mean he says "Today is History?"
What is your reaction to this scene?
What are the Nazis doing?
History tells us who we are...
"BASED ON A TRUE STORY"
Can/should film (arts) teach History? WHY or WHY NOT?
In answering this question, consider:
the differences between film and historical text.
the inherent values and limitations of each medium.
the obligations and aims of each creator.
the implications of getting History through film.
"One obvious question about this is: Why shouldn't the film maker, like the novelist, have license to use the material of history selectively and partially in the goal of entertaining, creating a good dramatic product, even forging what is sometimes called the poetic truth, a truth truer even than literal truth? The artist, one could argue, is an interpreter, not a reporter, a seeker after meaning, perhaps a prophet, but not a scribe; so the invention or rearrangement of details doesn't matter. Indeed, the question could be put this way: Does it matter if the details are wrong if the underlying meaning of events is accurate? Or, conversely, does it matter if the details are correct if the underlying truths remain twisted and unsubstantiated?"
Bernstein, Richard. "Can Movies Teach History?" The New York Times. The New York Times, 25 Nov. 1989. Web. 02 Sept. 2015.
REFLECTION
RESPOND TO THE QUESTIONS POSED IN THE QUOTE
Choose a film based on historical events and evaluate it as a source of knowledge. You evaluation should also include an analysis of whether movies as a whole can/should be used in understanding historical knowledge.
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