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Radosław Scheller

on 8 October 2015

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Transcript of Lifecycle.KM

Three main Questions concerning KM
life cycle:

1. What is the problem that warrants a soltion by the KM system?

2.What development strategy should be considered?

3. What process will be used to build the system?
Life cycle characteristics:

Discipline, order or segmentation.

Good documentations of possible changes of the system
in future.

Coordination of the project to ensure the cycle is completed
on time.

Regular management review at each phase of the cycle.

Challenges in Building KM Systems
Knowledge evaluation
Knowledge processing
Knowledge implementation
Knowledge Management Systems Life cycle
The specific Questions:

Is current knowledge going to be lost through retirement, transfer, or departure to other firms?

Is the proposed KM system needed in several locations?

Are experts available and willing to help in building a KM system?

Does the problem in question require years of experience and cognitive reasoning to solve?

When undergoing knowledge capture, can the expert articulate how the problem will be solved?

How critical is the knowledge to be captured?
Are the tasks no algorithmic?

Is there a champion in the house?
The scope Factor
The scoping definition is “limiting and breadth and depth of the project within the financing, human resource and operational constraints.”
It can be consists of several factors:
Readiness of the company’s current technology.
Identification of gaps and areas needing improvement.
General review and understanding of the benefits and limitations of KM tools and components.
Also the feasibility should be considered by following question:

Is the project doable can be completed within reasonable tiem?
Is it affordable?
Is it appropriate?
The several tasks to build the KM system
Form a KM team it should form a commitment to the KM developing team
Prepare a master plan it lays out the steps to be taken throughout the life cycle
Evaluate cost/performance of proposed KM system it’s the easy answer in question: “What are we getting in return for the cost of building this new KM system?”
Quantify system criteria and costs to build the rating and criterion for system, for ex. 1 is “poor”, 5 is “excellent”.
Role of Strategic Planning
Before launching a new system everyone should set the ultimate goal of a KM system connecting users with knowledge content.
After evaluation form of the company ‘s existing infrastructure, we should form a KM team. It means:
Identifying the key units, departments, branches or divisions as the key stakeholders in the prospective KM system.
Balancing the team size and competency organizationally, strategically, and technologically.
What factors determine the team success?
Caliber and team size
Team leadership and motivation
Knowledge capture and transfer
The knowledge capture involves eliciting, analyzing, and interpreting the knowledge that a human expert uses t solve a particular problem. The interviews with knowledgeable people are used to capture information and knowledge.
Knowledge capture and transfer are often carried out through team, not just through individuals. Firstly, team is asked to perform the task, than after outcome, knowledge developer explores with the team the relationship between action and outcome. If the team agrees that common knowledge has been gained, it becomes available in knowledge base by translating (in form of documents, a case with rules).
What is a rapid prototyping?
process which continues through several sessions and weeks of work until the knowledge base moves out of the prototype stage and becomes a full-fledged knowledge base that is ready for use

Success of knowledge capture : selecting a competent and collaborative expert.
Why ?
The knowledge developer will occasionally run into vague and fuzzy expressions of thought or reasoning processes that must be clarified by the expert.
The expert must be able to communicate information understandably and in sufficient detail.
1 or few ?

How select an expert ?

Face many questions :
How many years’ experience is required from the expert?
Will the expert stay with the project to the end?
What backup is available in case the expert is no longer available?
What is and what I not within the expert’s area of expertise?

An important player in the KMSLC : architect of the system

His role :
Identify the problem domain
Capture the knowledge
Write and test the heuristic that
represent the knowledge
Coordinate the entire project
from beginning to end

Such job requires certain qualifications.
Which attributes do you think are the most important ?

The most important attributes are :

excellent communication skills
An understanding of knowledge capture tools
Familiarity with technology
Tolerance for ambiguity
Ability to work well with other professionals including experts
Being a conceptual thinker
Having a personality that motivates people to work together as a team : the knowledge developer’s job requires interaction with a number of individuals throughout the KMSLC.
The blueprint is the 1st step of designing the IT infrastructure.

A KM blueprint addresses several important issues :
Aim for system interoperability and scalability with existing company IT infrastructure
Finalize the scope of the proposed KM system with realized net benefits in mind
Decide on the required system components such as user interface options, knowledge directories and mining tools.
Develop the key layers of the KM architecture to meet your company’s requirements.

2 steps :
A verification procedure: ensures that the system is right.
The technical performance of the system is evaluated : goof format, rules of fire, etc.
A validation procedure: this test ensures that the system is the right system that’s it meets the user’s expectations.
Validation checks reliability of the knowledge management system.

The validation is a long-term item : human experts must monitor system performance continually.


Quality assurance : the development of controls to ensure a quality KM system.

The goal : to have as error-free and reliable a system as possible.

There are several kinds of errors to look :
Reasoning errors
False representation

The level and duration of training depend on the user’s knowledge level and the system’s attributes.

Users range from novices (limited knowledge of IT) to experts (prior IT experience)

Users also classified as :
Tutor : trained by the KM developer : responsible for system maintenance)
pupil or customer : unskilled worker trying to gain some understanding of the captured knowledge

Anxiety about change.
The resistors include the following :

Experts: some domain experts have anxiety about the potential impact of sharing knowledge of their jobs in the organization

Regular employes : participants in general resent lack of recognition (compensation) when they have put time in building the KM system.

Troulemakers: are chronic complainers tend to obstruct the installation, cause delay, and may prompt cancellation of the installation.

Narrow minded “superstars”: technical people in the organization sometimes resist any change they did not initiate or approve in advance.

How could we minimize
the resistance
to change ?

Deal with people : understand why they are against.
Provide User education


Participation in the building process

The objective is : to evaluate the KM system against standards and determine how well it meets the goals set in advance.

This process is actually related to validation.

It mays include enhancement and maintenance.

What is Life Cycle?
Conventional vs KM Systems Life Cycle(KMSLC)
Key Differences
1. systems analyst, users, the users depend on analysts for the solution vs. knowledge developer, knowledge, the developer depends on them for the solution.

2. The main interfacenovice users who know problem but not the solution vs. knowledgeable person who knows problem and the solution

3. development is primarily sequential vs. incremental and interactive.

4. testing is usually done towards the end of the vs. the evolving system is verified and validated from the beginning of the cycle.

5. Systems development and systems management is much more extensive for conventional information systems than it is for KMSLC.

6. process-driven and documentation-oriented, “specify then build” vs. result-oriented, “start slow and grow”

7. rapid prototyping incorporating changes on the spot.

Rapid prototyping
Key Similarities

1. Both cycles starts with a problem and end with a solution.

2. The early phase in case of conventional systems development life cycle starts with information gathering. In KMSLC the early phase needs knowledge capture.

3. Verification and validation of a KM system is often very similar to conventional systems testing.

4. Both the systems analyst and the knowledge developer needs to choose the appropriate tools for designing their intended systems.
KMSLC Approaches
Primarily due to lack of standardization, a number of approaches have been proposed for KMSLC.

Refer to Table 3.2 in page 65 of your textbook for a list of representative approaches, and refer to Figure 3.3 in page 66 of your textbook for a proposed hybrid life cycle.

The conventional systems development approach can still be used for developing KM systems, but it is usually being replaced by iterative design, prototyping etc.

Evaluating the Existing Infrastructure
KM systems are developed in order to satisfy the need for improving productivity and potential of employees and the company as a whole.
The existing knowledge infrastructure is evaluated so that it can give the perception that the present ways of doing things are not just abandoned in preference for a new system.
To implicate KM, an organization should consider several managerial factors:
A commitment to user education and training pior to bulding the system
Costs and benefits of KM system should be known
Traning knowledge developers should be provided
Domain experts must be recognized and rewarded
Do long-range strategic planning
One of the critical issues raised during implementation is knowledge system maintenance
For many coworkers manintenance of KM will be bebulous area
Who will be in charge of maintenance?
Building a KM system can be viwed as life cycle:
-Life cycle begans when system is doable, affordable, and practicable
-Knowledge developers interview users and work with experts to develop system
-Discipline,good documentation,coordination, and regular management review chracterize the development of KM system life cycle
Conventional and KM systems' development life cycles differ
A systems analyst deals with data and information obtained from user;the knowledge developers deals with tactic knowledge acquired from human experts
The main interface for the system analyst is the user, who knows the problem but not the solution.The main interface with the knowledge developer is the human expert who knows the problem and the solution.
Conventional system development is primarily sequential; KMSLC is incremental and interactive.
testing is done at the end validation are performed troughout the KM development life cycle
Conventional and KM systems' development life cycles are also similar
Both begin with a problem and end with solution
Both begin with informations gathering to ensure a clear understanding of the users' requirements or the problem at hand
Both involve testing the system and ensuring that the system is satisfactory
Particular development tools are used to build each system
The end
Enhancement function is closely related to maintenance.
It's task is to keep the KM system current
Full transcript