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China's Parallel Hierarchies

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Julia McAleer

on 10 March 2014

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Transcript of China's Parallel Hierarchies

The Chinese government is composed of three political organizations: The Communist Party, the government, and the People's Liberation Army. They are separate, but are all dominated by the CCP and interact.

The government is controlled by a policy known as "dual role". Under the principle of dual role, the government is supervised both by the next highest level of government (vertical supervision) and by the CCP at the same level (horizontal supervision).
The Institutions of the Chinese Government
China's Parallel Hierarchies
The CCP is composed of a hierarchy of organizations from the lowest, Primary Party Organizations, on the local level, up through provincial and regional organizations, to the Politburo Standing Committee, a small group of men who essentially control the entire nation.
All high-ranking and most lower government positions are held by CCP members. The CCP controls the National People's Congress, the nation's legislative body. It also presents the only candidates for elected office.
The CCP also controls the PLA by ensuring that all leaders are influential CCP members.
There is a corresponding level of government for every level of the CCP, from village councils up through local, provincial, and national people's congresses to the executive branch. The legislative branch is the National People's Congress. The executive branch is composed of a president a vice-president. The judicial branch is a four-tiered "people's court". The head of the entire government is the "premier".
The National People's Congress has relatively little power of its own and only convenes to approve proposed legislation of the Politburo.
The president and vice president are always influential CCP leaders.
The premier is chosen by the president, but is also always a standing committee member.
There is much overlap between high-ranking PLA officers, government leaders, and CCP officials. The Central Military Commision has been led by prominent party leaders, two Politburo members are PLA officers, and PLA representatives comprise 20% of the Central Committee.
Connections to Other Political Structures
The army is massive, with 2.3 million active personnel and approximately 12 million reserves
China's military budget has been rising swiftly every year
It is thought that the military's growth is based on a desire to regain control of Taiwan
China ended all top-level military interaction with the USA after an American arms deal with Taiwan in 2010
The Communist Party, or CCP, is the political powerhouse that controls everything in the Chinese government. It still claims to be a communist party, but is in practicality far from its Maoist roots. Today, the CCP is little more than a mechanism for maintaining power in the government and military.
The Communist Party
The government is composed of legislate, executive, and judicial branches. Theoretically the government is independent, but the control exercised by the CCP is very extensive.
The PLA, which was created and grown by Mao, encompasses all of China's land, air, and naval forces. It does not have formal political power, but does have a strong influence on politics.
The Government
The People's Liberation Army
Military Facts
Government Structures
Connections to Other Political Structures
CCP Structures
Connections to Other Political Structures
Judiciary
Both prosecution and defense are public and provided by the national "people's procurate"
Rule of law has been established, but the laws still do not always apply equally to all citizens
Arrests of political dissidents are common
There is a 99% conviction record and a minimal appeal process
Hundreds or thousands of peopl have been executed during anti-crime campaigns
Full transcript