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Bones

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John Doe

on 2 December 2014

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Transcript of Bones

Skeletal System

Fractures
Transverse fractures
(Non)Displaced fractures
Spiral fractures
Open and Close fractures
Segmental fractures
Compression fractures
Greenstick fracture
Hair Line fracture
Types of Bone Fractures
Cracks or breaks in bones
Stress Factors in bones
Steps of Repairing a Fracture
Bleeding in the fracture
Cells of the endosteum and periosteum
Osteoblasts
Remodel of the fracture takes up to a year
Ways of Repairing the Bones
Hard Cast
Metal Pins
What Can Cause a Bone to Fracture?
Sports
Accidents
Everyday Activity
**graphic material
The Aging of Bones
Life Time with Bones
Our bones change throughout our life time
18-21 years old
Durability changes
Infant's Bone Structure
Soft Bones
Children and Adolescent Bone Structures
The rate of bone formation is faster than bone resorption
Adult Bone Structure
Bone growth and bone resorption are balanced
Elderly Bone Structures
Bone mass is declining
Osteoporosis
What Kind Of Fracture is This?
a. Compound Fracture
b. Hair Line Fracture
c. Green Stick Fracture
d. Segmental Fracture
d. Segmental Fracture
References:
Martini, Frederic H., Judi L. Nath, and Edwin F. Bartholomen. Fundamentals of Antaomy & Physiology. 10th ed. N.p.: Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company,, 2014. N. pag. Print.
Effects of Alcohol on Bones
-Cortical vs. Cancellous Bone
Adolescence:
Goals of Bones:
- maximize bone mass and density
- lower risk of Osteoporosis
- withstand long duration

Determining Factors:
- genetics
- hormones
- nutrition
- environment
- lifestyle
Hormones
* lecture example: role of calcium at the NMJ
- Parathyroid Hormone
function:
- increase blood calcium levels
- stimulate osteoclasts
- responds to low levels of calcium
*short term
- inc PTH
- osteoclasts in overdrive
*long term
- impaired ability of parathyroid glands
Hormones
Calcitonin
function:
- opposite of PTH
- reduce blood calcium levels
- inc deposition of calcium by inc of osteoblast activity
- responds to high levels of calcium
Hormones
Effects of Alcohol
Effects of Alcohol
-calcitonin levels only increase slightly during consumption


So... How do these affect one another during alcohol consumption?
PTH: increases during consumption Calcitonin: only increases slightly
osteoclasts are in overdrive inhibition is not high
- low osteoblast activity

*** Osteoclasts are breaking down bone quickly without much resistance
Clinical Trial
direct effects of alcohol on osteoblasts
measured: levels of osteocalcin (measure of osteoblast activity and function)
-healthy group (control) vs. alcohol affected group (experimental)

>reported a decrease in osteocalcin levels in response to alcohol consumption
>decreased trabecular bone formation
>decreased number of osteoblasts
>decreased rates of bone formation
>impaired bone formation and mineralization
>wall thickness: reduced by 52% in experimental group

*alcohol causes decrease in osteoblast function and quantity
*characteristics are indicative of high risk of osteoporosis
*inhibition of osteoblast proliferation

- body monitors levels of calcium

Effects of Alcohol
- disrupts those regulating hormones
ex) small intestine, kidneys, nerves, muscles
Broege, Aaron. "Hungry Osteoclast 1." The Sensitive Scientist. Wordpress, 17 Nov. 2011. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. <http://thesensitivescientist.files.wordpress.com/2011/11/hungry-osteoclast-blog.jpg>.
- - -. "Revenge of the Osteoclast." The Sensitive Scientist. Worpress, 11 Dec. 2011. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. <http://thesensitivescientist.wordpress.com/2011/12/11/sunday-night-sketches/>.
Bryan, Wendy. "Intestine/Kidney." I Heart Guts! I Heart Guts, n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. <http://iheartguts.com/blogs/meet-the-guts>.
Marberry, Sara. "Research." Sara Marberry LLC. Sara Marberry, n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. <http://www.saramarberry.com/emerging-vs-strong-research-evidence-based-design/>.
Sampson, H. Wayne, Ph.D. "Alcohol's Harmful Effects on Bones." National Institute of Health Publications 22.3 (1998): 1-5. Print.
Yale University. "Neuromuscular Junction EM." MedCell @ Yale. Yale University, n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2014. <http://medcell.med.yale.edu/systems_cell_biology_old/nervous/neuromuscular_junction_em.php>.
Facts about Ostegenesis Imperfecta. (2014). Retrieved November 2014, from Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation: www.oif.org
Osteogenesis imperfecta. (2013, November 24). Retrieved November 2014, from Genetics Home Reference: www.nlm.nih.gov/condition/osteogenesis-imperfecta.com
Osteogenic Sarcoma. (n.d.). Retrieved November 2014, from John Hopkins Medicine: www.hopkinsmedicine.org
Osteomalacia. (2014, April 14). Retrieved November 2014, from Mayoclinic: www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/osteomalacia/basics/com
Starkebaum, G. A. (2014, August 3). Osteomalacia. Retrieved November 2014, from MedlinePlus: U.S. National Library of Medicine: www.nlm.nih.gov
Which statement is true about levels of calcium in the blood and the responses takes by bone cells?
a.
If levels of blood calcium are low, levels of PTH are increased and osteoclast activity is increased.
b.
If levels of blood calcium are low, levels of calcitonin are increased and osteoblast activity is increased.
c.
If levels of blood calcium are high, levels of PTH are decreased and osteoblast activity is increased.
d.
If levels of blood calcium are high, levels of calcitonin are decreased and osteoclast activity is increased.
Osteogenesis imperfecta
(Brittle Bone Disease)
- Genetic disorder characterized by an extreme fragility of the bones
- 8 recognized forms of OI
Type I: mildest and most common
Type II: most severe, babies tend to not live past birth
Type III: most severe in infants that survive
- Occurs in 6 - 7 in 100,000 births worldwide
- Caused by mutations in specific Type I collagen
genes

Osteogenic Sarcoma
- Form of cancer that originates in the bone, usually at the epiphyseal plate
- Often seen in adolescence during periods of of rapid growth
- Cause unknown, but defective tumor suppressor gene that allows tumors to grow
- Symptoms: pain at tumor site, bone weakness, pathological fractures
- Diagnosis: radiographs, CT, MRI, biopsy, bone scan, check for metastasis
- Treatment: ~ 5-8 months, dependent on size, position, and stage of cancer, chemotherapy to reduce size of main tumor, surgery, radiation therapy
Symptoms
- frequent fractures and dislocations especially during adolescence
- stature can be normal or short
- abnormally small limbs
- bone and tooth abnormalities
- blue sclera
- deafness
- respiratory and swallowing issues
- triangular face shape
Diagnosis
- family history
- radiographs
- physical findings
- genetic testing
Treatment
- No cure
- rodding surgery
- bisphosphonates
- calcium and vitamin D supplements
- physical therapy to increase peak bone mass and muscle strength
- genetic counseling
What is the cause of osteogenesis imperfecta?
a.)
mutation of the type I collagen gene
b.)
vitamin D deficiency
c.)
malfunctioning tumor suppressing gene
Questions?
-Calcium ions trigger fusion of synaptic vesicles to release acetycholine
-Calcium ions bind to troponin and move tropomyosin for contraction (myosin binds to actin)

Bones are composed of Osseous
Tissue.

"Osseous" derived from the Greek
word
osteon
, meaning bone.
The
Many
Functions
of
Bones
1. Structure and Support
Many Bones store Minerals
osmotic concentrations
Physiological processes
enzyme co-factors
Store Energy
As Lipids
In Yellow Bone Marrow
RBC, WBC, and many other blood elements are produced in red bone marrow.

Red bone marrow fills the internal cavities of many bones.

Impacts Cardiovascular & Lymphatic
Protection
Ribs- heart and lungs
skull- brain
vertebrae- spinal cord
pelvis- digestive & reproduction organs
Bones also act as levers
creating different movements through varying magnitudes and directions
Different Shapes!
Long
short
flat
irregular
sutural
sesamoid
COMPACT
VS.
SPONGY
outer layer
what most visualize
smooth
solid
medullary cavity
honeycomb shape
small interconnected plates called trabeculae

fractures

bone disease
(ex. osteogenisis imperfecta)

effects of alcohol
Its not Perfect
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