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A Behavioral Perspective of Anxiety
Transcript of A Behavioral Perspective of Anxiety
Scarcity of Behavioral Research
Anxiety as phenomena vs. category
Mentalistic explanations of anxiety widely accepted by public
Hesitation to study private events
Commonly Diagnosed Anxiety Disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
to Diagnose Anxiety Disorders
Beck Anxiety Interview (BAI
Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7)
A Behavioral Perspective of Anxiety
Between 10.8% and 28.8% lifetime prevalence rate
"Psychological equivalent of a fever" --Friman, Hayes, & Wilson
Theories of Anxiety
Role of language
Derived relational responding
Transformation of functions
Combination of classical and operant conditioning theories
“(1)…an emotional state, somewhat resembling fear and (2) the disturbing stimulus which is principally responsible does not precede or accompany the state but is ‘anticipated’ in the future" --W.K. Estes & B.F. Skinner
Role of language
Derived Relational Responding
Transformation of Function
Beck Anxiety Inventory
Depression Anxiety Stress
42 item questionairre
Focus is on physiological arousal, panic, and fear
Higher scores indicate higher severity of anxiety
Sound clinimetric properties
Disorder 7 (GAD-7)
7 item scale
Strong psychometric properties
Good clinical utility
Could lead to earlier detection and treatment of GAD
(Kertz, Bigda-Peyton, & Bjorgvinsson, 2013)
Behavioral Treatments for Anxiety
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy
Response Prevention Therapy
Behavioral treatments for anxiety include the following:
A short term, goal-oriented psychotherapy approach to problem solving.
The goal is to change patterns of thinking or behavior that are behind people’s difficulties,
and by doing so, change the way the person feels.
It is used to treat a wide variety of difficulties, including anxiety, depression, and substance abuse.
Focuses on changing a person’s internal dialog
Offshoots of CBT
Developed in the late 1980’s to treat borderline personality disorder.
Theorizes that some people react more intensely to every day stressors.
Therapist teaches coping skills and adaptive strategies in weekly sessions.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
Stands for Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
Theorizes that greater well-being can be attained by overcoming
negative thoughts and feelings
Addresses coping mechanisms people have learned.
ACCEPTANCE AND COMMITMENT THERAPY
Often used to treat post traumatic stress disorder.
Enables client to face and gain control of fear learned in a traumatic situation.
Can be done with either a flooding technique or a desensitization technique.
Often uses relaxation techniques to help clients face stressful situation.
Can use either real situations or virtual reality.
Often used with exposure therapy.
Focus is on controlling response and not making typical response.
For example, a person with social anxiety gives a speech
and is encouraged to not exhibit typical avoidant responses.
Also used to treat Tourette’s syndrome and the tics that result.
There are differences in the brains of people
diagnosed with anxiety and those who are not.
GAD is thought to be caused by reduced communications between different parts of the brain, especially the amygdala.
During a traumatic situation, certain stimuli become paired with bad outcomes.
When the trigger is experienced again, the same reaction will follow.
Classically conditioned as a fear response
Where does anxiety come from?
How has behavior analysis addressed the issue of anxiety?
Behavior analysis has addressed anxiety by operationally defining it as a classically conditioned fear response.
By looking further into the behavior associated with anxiety, behavior analysts have developed specific,
short term therapy solutions to intervene in this situation.
Behavioral analysis has addressed anxiety in the variety of ways that were previously discussed in this presentation.
How has behavioral analysis addressed the issue of anxiety?
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