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Country Profile and State Formation

Alphonse Samson

on 13 January 2013

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Transcript of Indonesia

INDONESIA The first known hominid inhabitant of Indonesia was the so-called "Java Man", or Homo erectus, who lived here half a million years ago. The last and most powerful of these early Hindu-Javanese kingdoms, the 14th century Majapahit Empire, once controlled and influenced much of what is now known as Indonesia, maintaining contacts with trading outposts as far away as the west coast of Papua New Guinea. c. 2,500 BC People in Indonesia learn to farm. They grow taro, bananas, millet and rice
c. 700 BC Bronze and iron are first used in Indonesia
400 BC The Indonesians trade with China and India
8th century AD Civilisation in Indonesia is flourishing. The kingdom of Sriwijaya exists in south Sumatra. The kingdom of Sailandra exists in central Java.
13th century The Sriwijaya Empire breaks up
1292 The Majapahit Empire is founded
Early 15th Century The Majapahit Empire goes into a rapid decline
1511 The Portuguese capture Melaka
1602 The Dutch East India Company is founded
1619 The Dutch capture Batavia
1641 The Dutch take Melaka
1799 The Dutch government take over the territories Dutch East India Company
1825 The Javanese War begins. The Dutch take Pelambang in Sumatra.
1830 The Dutch win the Javanese War
1894 The Dutch capture Lombok
1905 The Dutch capture Sulawesi TIMELINE OF INDONESIA 1906 The Dutch conquer Bali
1942 The Japanese invade Indonesia
1945 August Sukarno declares Indonesian independence but the Dutch fight to subdue Indonesia
1946 The Dutch recognise the new republic but only in Java and Sumatra. They still claim the rest of Indonesia.
1947-48 Fighting continues
1949 The Dutch recognise Indonesian independence
1957 President Sukarno introduces 'Guided Democracy'
1965 The Communists attempt a coup in Indonesia. It is crushed.
1966 Suharto becomes dictator of Indonesia
1973 Indonesia benefits from the high price of oil
1997 Indonesia suffers from a financial crisis
1998 Suharto resigns
1999 Elections are held
2004 Susilo Bambang Yudho is elected president of Indonesia The first people in Indonesia arrived about 40,000 years ago when sea level was lower and it was joined to Asia by a land bridge. Then at the end of the last ice age about 10,000 BC a new wave of people came. At first they hunted animals, collected shellfish and gathered plants for food. By about 2,500 BC they learned to grow crops such as taro, bananas, millet and rice. The early farmers also made pottery but all their tools were made of stone.
However by 700 BC the Indonesians had learned to make bronze and iron. Furthermore at that time wet rice cultivation was introduced. Indonesian villages were forced to co-operate to regulate the supply of water to their fields. In time organized kingdoms emerged.
From about 400 BC Indonesians traded with other nations such as China and India.
Hinduism and Buddhism were also introduced to Indonesia and they took route.

By the 8th century AD Indonesian civilization was flourishing. Among the kingdoms was a Hindu kingdom in central Java called Sailandra. There was also the great Buddhist kingdom of Sriwijaya in south Sumatra. From the 7th century to the 13th century Sriwijaya prospered and it became a maritime empire controlling western Java and part of the Malay Peninsula. It was also a centre of Buddhist learning.

However in the 13th century the Sriwijaya Empire broke up into separate states.

Meanwhile Islam was brought to Indonesia by Indian merchants. It first gained a toehold in Aceh in north Sumatra and in following centuries it spread through the rest of Indonesia.

However in the 13th and 14th centuries a Hindu kingdom flourished. It was called the Majapahit Empire. It was founded in 1292 and soon rose to dominate most of Indonesia. However in the early 15th century the Majapahit Empire went into a rapid decline. A Billion Years Ago . . . In the early 16th century the Portuguese arrived in Indonesia. at that time there was a huge demand in Europe for spices such as nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon, cloves and mace. Huge profits could be made by transporting them to Europe and selling them. The Portuguese therefore decided to seize the Moluccas, the chief source of spices. In 1511 they captured Melaka, an important port. They also captured the Moluccas.

However in the early 17th century the Portuguese lost their position to the Dutch. The first Dutch fleet sailed from Holland in 1595 under Cornelis de Houtman. In 1602 the Dutch East India Company was formed to control trade with Indonesia. In 1605 they took Tidore and Ambon from the Dutch. In 1619 the company captured Batavia. In 1641 they took Melaka. During the 17th century the Dutch gradually extended their power of Java and the Moluccas. However they had little influence in the rest of Indonesia.

Moreover during the 18th century the Dutch East India Company slipped into debt. Finally in 1799 the Dutch government took over its territories.

In 1806 the British and Dutch went to war. In 1811 the British under Lord Minto sailed to Batavia. The British soon captured all the Dutch possessions in Indonesia. The British abolished slavery and they also divided the country into areas called residencies for administration. However in 1816 the British handed Indonesia back to the Dutch.

Many Indonesians resisted the return of the Dutch. However the Dutch eventually defeated them and regained control.

However in 1825 the Javanese War, in central Java, began. It was led by Prince Disponegoro. However the war ended with Dutch victory in 1830. Disponegoro went into exile and died in 1855.

Furthermore during the 19th century the Dutch extended their control over other parts of Indonesia. In 1825 they took Pelambang in Sumatra. They also fought wars with the Balinese in 1848, 1849, 1858 and 1868. However Bali was not finally conquered until 1906.

In 1873 the Dutch went to war with Aceh. The war went on until 1908. Meanwhile in 1894 the Dutch captured Lombok and in 1905 they captured the whole of Sulawesi.

Meanwhile the Dutch shamelessly exploited the Indonesians. In 1830 the Dutch introduced the Kultuurstelsel (cultural system). Indonesian farmers were forced to put aside 20% of their land to grow crops for export. They were paid only a nominal sum by the Dutch government for them. Indonesians were forced to grow coffee, indigo, tea, pepper, cinnamon and sugar. As a result of this measure rice production was reduced.

However in 1870 the Dutch switched to a free market system. The Dutch governments monopoly on sugar and other commodities was ended. Private plantations were created. However the Indonesians were not necessarily better off. Now they were employed as coolies on the great plantations. When the Indian traders came . . . In the early 20th century the Dutch decided to treat the Indonesians more fairly. They introduced what they called the ethical policy. This meant building schools and spending money on health care, sanitation and irrigation. However the new policy had little effect on the lives of most Indonesians.

It did however mean that a least some Indonesians became highly educated and familiar with western ideas such as liberalism and socialism. As a result in the early 20th century nationalist movements were formed in Indonesia. They began clamouring for independence.

Then in 1940 the Germans occupied Holland. In 1942 the Japanese invaded Indonesia. The last Dutch troops surrendered on 8 March 1942. At first the Indonesians welcomed the Japanese as liberators. However they soon grew disillusioned. The Japanese were brutal and they ruthlessly exploited Indonesia's resources.

Yet when the Japanese were losing the war they started to favour Indonesian independence, hoping to make the Indonesians their allies.

Japan surrendered on 15 August 1945. Young Indonesian nationalists were determined to assert the countries independence before the Dutch could return. A group of them kidnapped two nationalist leaders Sukarno and Hatta. On 17 August Sukarno declared Indonesian independence. He became the first president and Hatta became vice-president.

However the Dutch were not willing to let Indonesia go so easily. At first British troops landed in Indonesia. They tried to remain neutral although there were armed clashes between the British and Indonesians in places.

However by November 1946 the British were gone and the Dutch had landed many men in Indonesia. In November the Indonesians and Dutch signed the Linggajati agreement. The Dutch recognised the new republic, but only in Java and Sumatra. They still claimed the rest of Indonesia. Furthermore the agreement stated that the republic would join a federal union with Holland in 1949.

Not surprisingly neither side were happy with the agreement. The Dutch built up their strength in an attempt to retake all of Indonesia. In the summer of 1947 they invaded the independent areas. However they were forced to withdraw, partly because of Indonesian resistance and partly because of strong international condemnation (especially by the USA).

In December 1948 the Dutch tried to retake Indonesia. This time the Indonesians turned to guerrilla warfare and they were successful. The Dutch faced strong condemnation from powers like the USA and they realised they could not win the war. Finally on 2 November 1949 the Dutch agreed to recognise Indonesian independence. Their troops withdrew in December 1949. At first independent Indonesia was a parliamentary democracy. However in February 1957 President Sukarno introduced a new political system, which he called 'Guided Democracy'. The power of parliament was reduced and his own power was greatly increased. His opponents formed a separate 'parliament' called the PRRC (the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia). However the army remained loyal to Sukarno and he stayed in power.

Meanwhile in October 1957 the army took over the remaining Dutch companies in Indonesia. As a result the army grew wealthy.

Then in the early 1960s the economy faltered. There was very rapid inflation.

In September 1965 the Communists attempted a coup in Indonesia. They murdered a number of generals. They also seized strategic points in Jakarta. However General Suharto quickly took action. The coup was crushed. Suharto was granted powers by President Sukarno to restore order. After the coup Suharto arrested and executed a large number of communists.

However Sukarno lost support and on 11 March 1966 he signed over his presidential powers to Suharto. From 1966 Suharto ruled as a dictator (although there were elections held every five years democracy was a facade). However Suharto brought stability and under him the economy of Indonesia recovered.

From the 1960s reserves of oil in Indonesia were exploited. After 1973 Indonesians benefited from the high price of oil. Agriculture also became far more productive.

However most Indonesians remained poor and in 1997 Indonesia was hit by a financial crisis. As a result the economy contracted. Indonesia was hit by riots and Suharto resigned in May 1998. Democracy returned to Indonesia with elections, which were held in 1999.

In 2004 Susilo Bambang Yudhoyno was elected President of Indonesia.

At the beginning of the 21st century the Indonesian economy began to recover and by 2007 it was growing by as much as 6% a year. Even in 2009 when most of the world was mired in recession the Indonesian economy still grew. There is every reason to be optimistic about the future of Indonesia.

Today the population of Indonesia is 248 million. A Geographic Indonesia Trade contracts with India, China and the mainland of Southeast Asia brought outside cultural and religious influences to Indonesia. The faith gradually spread throughout archipelago, and Indonesia is today the world's largest Islamic nation. In Indonesia, the construction of the house symbolizes the division of the macrocosm into three regions:
The Upper World
The Seat of Deities
and Ancestors. TEMPLES
AND TERMINOLOGIES Borobudur, or Barabudur Candi Prambanan or Candi Rara Jonggrang is a 9th-century Hindu temple compound in Central Java, Indonesia, dedicated to the Trimurti, the expression of God as the Creator (Brahma), the Sustainer (Vishnu) and the Destroyer (Shiva). The temple compound is located approximately 18 kilometres (11 mi) east of the city of Yogyakarta on the boundary between Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces. Dieng Plateu It is a marshy plateau that forms the floor of a caldera complex on the Dieng Volcanic Complex near Wonosobo, Central Java, Indonesia. Referred to as "Dieng" by Indonesians, it sits at 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above sea level, far from major population centres. The name "Dieng" comes from Di Hyang which means "Abode of the Gods". It is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist monument in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. The monument consists of six square platforms topped by three circular platforms, and is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. A main dome, located at the center of the top platform, is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues seated inside a perforated stupa. The Prambanan Temple Complex Although religious architecture has been widespread in Indonesia, the most significant was developed in Java. The island's long tradition of religious syncretism extended to architecture, which fostered uniquely Javanese styles of Hindu, Buddhist, Islamic, and to a lesser extent, Christian architecture.

A number of often large and sophisticated religious structures (known as candi in Indonesian) were built in Java during the peak of Indonesia's great Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms between the 8th and 14th centuries (see Ancient temples of Java). House of the Five Senses Details The House of the Five Senses is the impressive main entrance of amusement park Efteling in the Netherlands. It was designed by Ton van de Ven and went operational in 1996, a year later than planned due to a general strike in the construction sector. The architecture is based on the Indonesian Rumah Gadang style of the Minangkabau ethnic group.
The 52- meter high wooden construction has the largest reed roof (48437 square feet/ 4500 square meters) in the world, according to the Guinness Book of Records.
The five peaks of the roof symbolize the Five senses, which stand for experiencing the Efteling. Besides the entrance, customer service, a souvenir shop and a toilet group are located in the building. A Religious Indonesia An Archipelagic Indonesia An Ethnolinguistic Indonesia Indus (Greek, Latin: "India") + Nesus (Greek: "Island") Bhinneka Tunggal Ika "Unity in Diversity" Garuda Pancasila "Five Principles" 1. Belief in the one and only God
2. Just and civilized humanity
3. The unity of Indonesia
4. Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives
5. Social justice for all of the people of Indonesia Ancient History 1.5 - 1.8 Billion Years Ago, to be exact
Humans have existed in the island of Java
Evidence: "Java Man" (Homo erectus) Just Recently - 40,000 B.C. . . . Land bridges existed because of low sea levels
Waves of migrating human groups have reached Indonesia
Humans have learned how to cultivate and hunt for food, use stones, then make bronze and metal --- thus they "stopped" migrating Hindu-Buddhist empires emerged in Java and Sumatra (under the influence of Indian traders/travellers)
The trading empires of Srivijaya(Buddhist) in Sumatra, and Majapahit(Hindu) in Java, as well as the Mataram kingdom were powerful pre-Islamic kingdoms that challenged each other to gain trading routes. Though despite the lack of evidences, The Majapahit was known to be the most dominant of them.
Srivijaya ruled most of the Indonesian and Malaysian territories until 1290, when the Majapahit kingdom rose to power. When the Muslim traders came . . . Islamic traders introduced their faith around the 11th century.
Islam was spread throughout the archipelago, starting in Sumatra during the 13th century.
Islam became the major religion in Java and Sumatra. Bali remained as Hindu-majority.
Many Islamic sultanates/caliphates rose during this era, such as the Abbasid, Demak Bintoro, Pajang, Mataram and Banten. When the Westerners came . . . 16th century - To gain an upper hand on the spice trade, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch and British explorers sought to dominate India and the Spice Islands (Malaku).
The ones that had successfully touched Indonesian soil were the Portuguese and the Dutch.
The Dutch were the most successful in colonizing most of Indonesia. They founded the city of Batavia, now known as Jakarta. Thus the Dutch East Indies or Dutch East India Company emerged.
Portuguese Timor, now East Timor, was in Portuguese control until 1975. When nationalism sparked . . . October 1908 – Budi Utomo, the first nationalist movement. September 10 1912 – Sarekat Islam, the first nationalist mass movement.
The Dutch responded with repressive measures. Notable figures: Sukarno, Mohammad Hatta, Sutan Sjahrir
During this period, the Partai Komunis Indonesia, formerly Indes Social Democratic Association, was formed. When the Japanese came . . . Japanese occupation marked the end of Dutch rule in Indonesia. Netherlands during the World War 2 was captured by the Nazi Germany.
Sukarno and Hatta were decorated by the Japanese emperor in 1943. When the Japanese were defeated . . . Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed independence on August 17, 1945.
Netherlands tried to re-conquer Indonesia, but met with a bitter armed and diplomatic resistance.
On December 1949, Netherlands acknowledged Indonesian independence. THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

Indonesia went under Sukarno’s single unitary rule (August 17 1950) Politics since 1950 Indonesia is known for illustrating many of the regime types which has been observed in the region
From an unconsolidated democracy during the 1950s, it evolved into an unstable form of semi-authoritarianism during the early 1960s, and then for 30 long years it has become a pseudo-democracy until the 1990s and to a “fuller” kind of democracy that we know today. The New Order Indonesia’s New Order lasted for over 30 years
Likened to a pyramid
Characterized by few civil liberties and regular, but rigged elections
For 30 years, Indonesians had experienced political stability (an unjust one though), and rapid economic growth (which unfortunately is an uneven one)
Lead by Suharto National Leader + Elites Middle class + Civil society Transition to a Fuller Democracy ABDURRAHMAN WAHID Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie Characterized by a process of bottom-up “replacement” one which social forces have grown highly participatory.
The pace (unlike the transitions modulated by the elites) was rapid and the extent was far-reaching. It also deeply threatened the interests of the elites which made it vulnerable to authoritarian backlash (which may come in the form of an executive or military coup). It was also seen before as a transition which may not be able to stabilize
This was proved wrong by Habibie’s rise to power. The elites were able to regain some cohesion which enabled them to influence the pace and extent of the transition which prevented the need for a heavy-handed backlash.
Attempted to create reforms (especially in terms of civil-military relations, administrative decentralization and relations between business and government)
His reforms were in the way of the interests of the elites, which gave way to destabilizing actions.
He retreated leaving the military to have the control over most of the internal dealings
Decentralization became a matter of widely dispersed negotiations, safeguarding the livelihoods of bureaucrats
Through the IBRA (Indonesian Bank Restructuring Agency), an agency tasked to acquire assets from companies made insolvent by crisis, sell them to new interests and repay creditors, gains were made in terms rationalizing the business scene.
Overall Indonesia’s New Democracy remained marred by low quality, but is likely to persist mainly because reforms were limited that prospects for stability were improved. Suharto He elevated himself gradually from the elites in the military, bureaucracy and business.
He utilized the following to stay in power:
Patrimony (which ensnarled the elites)
Corporatism (which disciplined the society)
Uncompetitive elections (which gave a cloak of legitimacy to his rule)
Artfully managed elites but instead of unifying them, he further divided them into “rival factions” and then balanced them by administering patronage and sanctions.
He lived out to the “Pseudo-democratic” label of his regime by containing social forces by deploying a variety of incentives and controls.
These led to several havocs among the elites, but the elites, unfortunately were not able to fully challenge Suharto.
After 3 decades in power, he was overthrown in May 1998 which gave way to a transition to a fuller democracy.
Suharto concentrated most of the state power to himself which enabled him to control the elites
From his office (on the edge of Jakarta’s Medan Merdeka) he issued presidential “decisions,” “instructions,” and “decrees” and then firmed them with patronage and sanctions
He freely appointed his ministers, while maintaining control over bureaucratic rank-and-file through sundry organization
[More] Recent History Sukarno Indonesia Today "Emerald of the Equator"
"Heavyweight of Southeast Asia"
History of ethnic tensions (e.g. Indigenous ethnic groups vs Chinese)
World's largest Islamic nation Population: 245,613,043 (4th)
Nominal GDP: $845.680 billion (17th)
Land area: 1,904,569 sqaure km (15th)
Human Development Index: 0.617 (124th - Medium)
Life expectancy: 69.4
Mean years of schooling: 5.8
Per capita GDP: $4,666 (122nd)
Democracy (Freedom House): "Free"
Type of Government: Unitary Presidential Republic
Election: Proportional (multi-member districts) "purity of intent" "courage" "sky" "earth" "bloodshed" "aristocracy" "purity" *blue part ripped off* The Military, after the Dutch withdrew, made special claims to state power. The doctrine of Dwi-funsi or Dual function was devised which helped the Military earn its security and sociopolitical roles. Military officers would take posts in the cabinet, bureaucracy and state enterprises
Suharto relied upon Indonesia’s bureaucracy to carry out his developmental programs and also to offer nominal middle-class employment
Suharto dealt with business elites in two distinct but related aims
Economic Growth
But still perpetuating his paramouncy Social forces, however, lost its participatory vigor, gotten involved in petty factions, rival movements and looked for ways which economic hardships could be taken care of.
Even with the institution of civil liberty and regular elections, Habibie was able to continue the elite statuses.
His Golkar and his own candidacy was thwarted by founding elections, new oppositionists who were believed to be cautious reformers. Philippines East Timor Malaysia Vietnam Brunei Asia Australia East Asia South Asia Central Asia Southeast Asia Africa
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