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Graduation Project

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by

Abd Elhamid Zaitoun

on 11 July 2016

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Transcript of Graduation Project

Electrical Installation of Tourist Village

Requirements
Lighting




Where:
N: Number of units
E: Required illumination
A: Floor area of room
: Luminaries efficiency
U.F: Utilization Factor
D.F: Depreciation Factor
Lw: Wattage of one unit

The Utilization Factor depends on:
1- Lighting distribution
2- Luminaries efficiency
3- Reflection of ceiling, wall and floor of the room
4- Room index
Methods of lighting calculation
Sockets
Software
Distribution Board
Types of Distribution Boards
Air Condition
Team ( A )
Lighting
Sockets
Abdelhamid Zaitoun
Transformer
Antenna System
The steps of lighting design
Main distribution boards
Sub distribution boards
Dr. Mohamed Mostafa
Prof.Dr. Mohamed Farahat
supervisors
Software
Area = 8 x 8 = 64 m²
H = 3 m
E = 100 lux
Room Index k = (a × b) / h (a + b) = (8 x 8)/ (3 x 16) = 1.33
From The Table
: U.F = 0.4036 and D.F = 0.8
Qgross = (E ×A)/ (U.F ×D.F) = (100 x 8 x 8) / (0.4036 x 0.8) = 19821.6 lm
Use (2X 18) Watt Lamps:
No of lamps = (Qgross /lumens) = 19821.6 /1350 = 14.6
=15 lamp
No Of Units = (No of lamps/no of lamps per Unit) = 15/2 = 7.5 =9 unit
Distribution (3x3)
Length Space to Height Ratio = 8/ (3x 3) = 0.88
Width Space to Height Ratio = 8/ (3 x 3) = 0.88
Accepted
Solved Example:
T.V Games
Each 40 m^2 contain one socket circuit.
Total area of each room=57.6m^2
Total VA=area*1000/40=57.6*1000/40=1440 VA
Let power socket=1
Let double power socket=0
VA of power socket=1*250=250 VA
VA of double power socket=0*500=0 VA
No of normal socket= (Total VA-VA of P.S-VA of D.P.S)/120
= (1440-250-0)/120=9
No of normal socket= 9
Taking40% emergency
No of emergency power socket=1
No of emergency double power socket= 0
No of emergency normal socket= 4
Solved Example:
Restaurant
⦁ Determine no of circuit of ( lighting and power socket in sec)
⦁ Determine total rated current
{(No of lighting circuits *5) & (no of power socket circuits *8)}
⦁ Calculate VA total = 220*I rated
⦁ Calculate current for main cable {VA/(380* )}
⦁ For safety consideration = 1.25*main cable current
⦁ Select the C.B ratted from table
⦁ Determined cable current for design = 1.2* IC.B
⦁ Select C.S.A stander from table
Steps of Calculation
Distribution Board
Total Power 3060 Watt
I = p/(v*p.f) = 3060/(220*.8) = 17.386 A
Max Current in lighting Circuit = 5 A
No of Circuit = 17.3863/5 = 3.477
Then 4 Circuits

Solved Example:
section (1)
Types of air conditioner
Window air conditioner
Split air conditioner
Central air conditioning system
Steps of Calculation
⦁ Determined total area of each room
⦁ Choose type of method ( FCU & AHU )
⦁ Use FCU if area is less than 100 m2
⦁ Use AHU if area is more than 100 m2
⦁ Calculate motor power
⦁ Design C.B & disconnected switch
Software
Ahmed Atef
Mohamed Adel
Abdelgawad Ayman
Ahmed Tolba
Mohamed Tolba
Mohamed Hamed
Ahmed Didamony
Eslam Saad
Ensaf Habeb
Ahmed Abdelwahab
Amir Mahmoud
Ahmed Lotfy
Lifts
Kitchen
Air Condition
Fire Alarm
Cable Tests
Earthing
P.F Correction
1- Determine lighting requirements
2- Select lamps and luminaries
3- Calculate number of luminaries required
4- Position the luminaries
5- Analysis the results (technical lighting features, costs)
Watts per square meter method
Point by point or inverse-square method
Lumen or light flux method
Steps of average illumination calculation using Lumen or light flux method
Types of Sockets
Normal sockets
Power sockets
Steps of Calculations
Each 40 m^2 contain one socket circuit
Earthing
In general any earthing system needs to satisfy three demands :
Lightning and short circuit
Safety
Equipment protection and functionality
There are five types of earthing system
TN-S earthing system
TN-C-S earthing system:
TT earthing system
IT system earthing
TN-c system earthing
1- Dimensions of the metallic electrode (length & diameters of electrode).
2- The type of soil (soil resistivity).
3- The contact between the earth and electrode.
4- The bonding of electrodes.
factors that effect on the resistance of earthing system

Rod's Specification:
L=3 m
d= 2.5 c.m (dimater of rod)
=100 .m (resistivity of rod)



For sphere electrode:-
Aeq = ln ( 8*l/d) = 2.2617
(K) is given n following table:

Since the standard of earth resistance
Earthing system of any building
R
earth=
100 / ( 2* *2.2617) = 7.0367
( of one electrode)
Iteration (1)
No . of rod in one side ( n ) = 3
Total no.of rod=(4 )=(4 )= 8
N =8
From table : k = 4.25
Assume D = 4 m (spacing between two rods)

increase no of rod to reduce

R
earth
Iteration (2)

n=4 , N=12 , K= 5.4
= 2.38 Ω
(not acceptable)
Iteration (3)

n=5
N=16 , K= 6

R
earth
= 1.92 Ω (acceptable) ------- end
Then number of rods needed is 5 rods with the previeous specification .
"You never fail until you stop trying"
Thank you ^_^
Normal sockets=120 VA
Power sockets=250-500 VA
Software
Software
software programs
Lumen method is used to compute the number of units required to produce a required average illumination. The number of units is found as follow:
Transformer
Main Parts of Distribution transformer
1-Iron Core
2-Windings
3-Low Voltage Windings
4-High Voltage Windings
5-Tank
6-Terminals
7-Tap Changer
8-Cooling Oil
Software
Classification of Distribution Transformers
According To Method of Insulating and Cooling
Oil Immersed Transformers
Dry -type transformer
There are different methods of transformer cooling according to its rating :
AN
AB
ON
OB
OFN
OFB
OW
OFW
N.B
Transformer calculations
Chalet loads:
Total VA of lighting = 3980 VA
Total VA of sockets = 10360 VA
Total VA of air- condition 26252 VA
Transformer (5&6&7)
* Diversity factors:
= 0.8 for lighting
= 0.5 for sockets
= 1 for air-condition
So total loads = (3980*0.8 + 10360 * 0.5 + 26252)
= 34616 VA
Taking 27 chalet feeding from one transformer
So total loads= 834.632 KVA
SO rating of transformer = (834.632 /0.9) = 927.368888 KVA
Standard ----------------- 1000 KVA
I ( rated )=total VA /380 =834.632 / 380 = 1268 A
I ( C.B ) = 1.25*1268 = 1585 A
SO ----- C.B = 2000 A
I (cable) = 1.2* I (C.B) = 1.2* 1585 = 1902 A
SO ----- C.S.A = (3*300 + 2*150) mm2
Generator calculations:-
Total emergency loads of 27 chalet = 243 KVA
SO ----- Rating of generator required = 250 KVA
For 81 chalet using :
3 Generator
3 transformer(5,6,7)
THANKS AND GRATITUDE
We thank Allah for the results that we have reached
For their supervision and great contribution to accomplish the work of this project
Then the supervisors:
Prof. Dr / Mohamed A.Farahat
&
Dr / Mohamed Mostafa Tawfik
The tourist village consists of :
Social building
: consists of 3 floors .
Block
: consists of 12 block each block consists of 6 floors each floor contains 4 flats.
Mall
: consists of 2 floors.
Chalet
: consists of 81 chalet each one consists of 2 floors each floor 2 flats.
The selection of the suitable lighting unit for each place .
The determination of the number of lighting units and it's distribution to achieve uniform lighting over working plane of each place.(social building , block, mall ,chalet)
We have plotted the resulted luminaires on
AutoCAD
program for obtaining lighting planes.
We design aprogram by
visual basic 2008
for lighting to give better and accurate design results.
The selection of the suitable types of sockets unit for each place .
The determination of the number of sockets units and it's distribution for each place.(social building , block, mall ,chalet)
The selection of the suitable circuit breakers and the cables which will feed the different loads of the village ( such as : lighting & socket loads and the power loads ) by using the standard C.B ratings and cable's C.S.A from the manufactures catalogues.
The selection of the suitable type of air conditioning for each place .
The selection of the rating of air condition components by the help of mechanical engineer .
The selection of suitable C.B and the cables which will feed the air condition using standard C.B rating and cables C.S.A from the manufacturers Catalogues.
The determination of the number of lifts required and the rating of the lifts motor for each building.
The selection of the suitable C.B and the cables which will feed the lifts D.B.
The determination of the kitchen loads .
The selection of the suitable C.B and cables which will feed the loads of kitchen .
Here
, we have calculated the rated transformer by means of knowing the drawn current from the project M.D.B panel , also by calculating the need KVA then we reached the rated KVA needed , also we loading of the transformer with only 90% of it's rated load .
In this section we have to improve the p.f from (about 0.8 lagging ) to be (
0.95 lagging
).
The compensating unit rating required for correcting the p.f determined.
Earthing networks are designed to fulfill a number of functions . They can be independent or operate together to provide one or more of
the following :
Safety of person with respect to electrical hazards.
Protection of equipment with respect to electrical hazards.
The suitable cable is chosen according to the following factors:
Current carrying capacity.
Voltage drops on cables.
Short circuit calculation.
Economics of cables .

So that ,
after calculating the needed C.S.A we check the voltage drop for each feeder to suitable percentage loss in voltage from source to the load , also the cable routs must be determined accurately for not making a large voltage drop.
We have selected the fire alarm detector according to the
nature
of the place that we need to project as in house for example the most common action that can happened is to have a fire that starts with smoke appearance first so we use smoke detectors and so on .
We need to design antenna system , this system is consist of
antenna
,
amplifier
,
distributer
and
tap-off
.
Lighting
Lighting Circuit
Autocad
Autocad
Autocad
Full transcript