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Transcript of Gender Discrimination
Research Question: How does gender discrimination affect society?
“You came out to California, put on your pants, and took your lunch pail to a man's job. This was the beginning of women's feeling that they could do something more” - Sybil Lewis
Earliest Forms of Political Involvement
Fueled by the cult of domesticity, women obtained power through rising social movements that included women's suffrage rights.
The Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 was the first women's suffrage rights convention to occur was attended by over 200 women.
Wyoming first state to give voting rights to women slowly followed by other western states
The government motivated women to enter factories through propaganda like Rosie the Riveter and other magazines ads that also encouraged women to join
Created during the radical social reform movements of 1960s
Attorney General Holder announced as of December 22, 2014 Title VII will protect transgenders against discrimination as well
Protected women against discrimination when applying for jobs due to their gender
Issued by the Supreme Court
Also protects against discrimination based on race, religion etc.
Gender Gap in Academic Fields
Gender Gap in Academic Fields
Science is a “male field” whereas art is a “female field”
Pressure to choose gendered field
A study by Seymour and Hewitt found that women had difficulty "giving themselves permission" to major in STEM fields.
More beneficial to a society
Children prosper more from educated mothers
Lower fertility rates
Less child marriages
Less teenage pregnancies
Gender Wage Gaps
Account for the loss of $447.6 billion in income in the U.S. in 2012
Increased poverty rates among working women, working single mothers and single women.
Can be used to promote temporary economic development in specific countries
Gender Stereotypes: Masculinity vs. Femininity
Masculine Traits: Aggression, Independence, Assertiveness, Strength, Risk-taking
Feminine Traits: Affection, Gentleness, Fragility, Dependence, Nurturing
Men are dominant in society
Women take on a subservient role
Gender and Media Production
Media plays important role in socialization process
Media is human constructed
Media reflects societal norms
Media production in film, television, advertising industries is dominated by men.
Women are underrepresented in creative processes
Portrayal of Men and Women on TV
Men are more likely to be shown in employment and professional roles on TV
Women shown in professional roles are usually portrayed as unhappy in personal lives
Women are more likely to be limited to the domestic sphere
Marital status mentioned more for women than men
Iceland - Education
Most schools are funded by the Icelandic government
On the PISA, most Icelandic girls scored higher than the average boy in math and reading
Pakistan - Education
Pakistan has the second largest number of girls outside of school
Girls' education is taboo and outlawed in some villages
Pakistani schools have limited or no resources
Iceland - Domestic Violence
Articles VI and VII of the Constitution protect women against domestic abuse
Victims can report abuse to the Complaints Committee on equal rights
The Penal Code, Personal Status Act, Citizenship Act, and Criminal Code all allow discrimination and violence against women, and do not protect women from either
Women are vulnerable to honor killings and victim shaming
Portrayal of Women and Men in Advertising
Women's body parts in advertisements are often objectified
Women in advertisements are also shown in vulnerable positions
Men in advertisements are shown in more dominant poses
Advertisements geared toward women often promote how product can be used to help women please others.
War time eras like WWll needed an increase in labor work for factories to produce war materials- a job not commonly associated with women
Suicide Rates by Gender
By de-emphasizing gender, children will not only be pressured less by gender conformity, but will be less likely to perceive themselves and others as superior or inferior on the basis of gender.
"Of those who died by suicide in 2013, 77.9% were male and 22.1% were female."
Source: American Foundation for Suicide Prevention
We need to use media to show the importance of de-emphasizing gender to children. This will be aimed at parents, teachers, and kids.
Based on a study by Maccoby and Jacklin, parents engage in “rougher, more physical play with infant sons than with infant daughters.”
Nonverbal communications, like this, are examples in which parents and teachers could socialize boys to be competitive and aggressive but girls to be nurturing and open.