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Group 4 Project- Water 4A

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George Abraham

on 27 February 2013

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Transcript of Group 4 Project- Water 4A

Natural Sources for Water Waterfall Plan Alternatives Storage Distribution Long Term Plan Trees -Build a double well apparatus at the delta of the river from the waterfall (so it is a slow, but constant, stream).
•Build with wooden posts and filters from the ship
•Each level is a different filter (Starts with rocks, then goes to sand, then to just filter)
•Store water underground in wells built with strong adobe lining
•There will be a cover for the system during rain to prevent acid rain from possibly contaminating this supply of filtered water
•In the LONG future, we would build many wells to add on to this system and increase the storage capacity, and make the water easier to distribute throughout the land
•We would eventually add on so many wells that we would connect the system with sea water, or another water source, potentially. Life in a Drop Rain Where to store water:
-cool, dark, dry places (under the trees)
-far from direct sunlight
Available resources: (mainly to store small amount of water)
-Sterilized Pots and Pans
-Bamboos’ trunk
-Adobe-lined tree trunks for larger amounts (dried adobe keeps the wood from contaminating or soaking up the water). Survival Strategies Animal Guidance Coconuts Coconut Water - Hydration
only unripe coconuts
mature one have laxative oils Could use coconuts as cups/bowls Sugar Cane Easy to cultivate, does not contaminate easily
In areas with plentiful water
Holds water; easy to distribute for transportation of water Hints to find H2O Green Vegetation Swarms of Insects Animals Retrieving Water From Bamboo Find old bamboo trees
Bend down 1/3m off the ground
Tie it off
cut free inches from the tip
put container and leave it overnight Banana/Plantains Tree Water Extraction cut down tree
leaving 30cm trunk
hollow out trunk
water from roots will fill it up Other Hints -Water from tree branches will ferment, so drink promptly
-cut vines but don’t drinking from plants with milky sap
-if flavorless, vegetable source should be safe to drink
-cut stalk/root into lengths or else it will not flow
-water from low-land plants greater than those on hills
-NOTE: These are NOT our biggest major sources of water; they are just temporary, short-term sources. Look for low flying birds and follow them
Bird droppings around cracks in rocks indicate water
don’t follow carnivorous birds
follow flight paths in morning/evening Birds and their Hints Other Critters Hints bees or ants flying into hole may point to water source
steady line of ants up tree trunk and into hole
-Stick straw inside to check for wetness
-If wet, make a “mop” to squeeze water out/do not chop down trees Stage 1 Plan Water Treatment Does not need to be purified
Used for showering and other purposes that require less than perfectly clean water
Can be collected by pots sterilized by adding in water and heating it
Can also be Collected by creating a funnel that feeds into bamboo transportation network
A single collection funnel with a 3 meter diameter would collect an average of 20 liters of water day, or an average of 66 liters of water per rainfall. Materials Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 FUNnel saw
wood planks Cut the wood pieces into triangular and rectangular pieces as shown below in the picture. Cut 2 slots across the pieces short ways. One should be near the top and one should be near the bottom. The distance of these from the top and bottom should be the same for all pieces of wood. Arrange the pieces of wood as shown in the picture and with the slots facing outwards (the alternation of rectangular and v shaped pieces is simplified but implied in the diagram). Step 4 Bind the pieces together by wrapping and tying two pieces of rope around over the grooves. Dew Collecting dew from Transpiration from plants by tying plastic bags over a branch of trees, create some gravitational effect by adding rocks to the plastic bags so the water can fall into the plastic bags. Put a pot at the bottom to collect water. Ground Water Areas to Look Rocky and close to an outlet (sea, pond, or lake)
Look for fractures in the rocks and folds between the rocks
Note the fractures if they form a path for water to pass Noting Water Table Attach a very small light rock and attach some string.
Mark the end with chalk or other another object.
Drop the rock down the well till you hear the rock hits water or the tension on the string lessens
Mark the string at level with the ground
Now measure the distance between the marks and that is the table. Measure the sea level Make a benchmark object near the beach
Tie the rope around the object and walk toward the beach until you have place feet on water.
Bring the line perpendicular to the water.
Mark the top of the line.
Drop the line till it hits the water and mark it at that level
Measure the distance between the marks. Safety Level Subtract the water table and the sea level
This is the maximum you can change the water table by drawing water.
Draw water until the level changes and mark the difference.
See how many of these differences fit in the level.
Also measure the amount of water you had taken out.
Multiply the amount of the water with the number of differences to find how much water you can draw from the aquifer Limits If you find you are at the limit
The water table will drop during the winter
Leave the supply until rains occurs over an extended period of time (2-3 weeks)
Then measure table to see how much it retained.
Do Not draw any more water from the limit
The effects
It will cause sea water and other containment to spoil the water
The aquifer may collapse and the source is lost Adobe Creation 1.Mix into a container water and soil. The soil should fill 2/3 of the container.
2.Shake the container well for about 2 minutes and then allow it to sit over night.
3.The next day look at the container to make sure that the soil has separated into bands of sand on the bottom and clay on the top.
4.The ration of sand to clay should be about 70 to 30 percent, respectively.
5.We will need to clear an area away from any rainfall for the bricks to dry. Once this is done we will need to make rectangular molds for the bricks that will line the well.
6.To mix the materials together we need to dig a big pit, where we will do it.
7.The soil will be put into the pit. If necessary, more sand or clay can be added.
8.Adding water to the soil, we are basically attempting to make a muddy substance that is firm and not watery, but that can hold its shape.
9.Mix the adobe well in order for it to be uniform.
10.Since we don’t have shovels we will take off our shoes and stomp on it.
11.Now the adobe can be put into the molds, filling the edges and smoothing it out with our hands.
12.The bricks will be allowed to dry in the molds for about 20 minutes and then taken out and laid on a flat surface (ground).
13.This can take several days or weeks, depending on the weather. Salt Utilizing the Salty Seas Follow the images---> Using the remaining Salt •Salt water is good for clearing wounds and stopping bleeding.
•We can filter out the debris in salt water and give it to the medical team for things like sore throats, toothaches, and abscess on the gums, bug bites and poison ivy contact. TEAM Naga
Thomas Totals 50 Liters per day drinking and sanitation and hygiene
6511 L total Drinking Water 130 people, 4 cups per person a day
520 cups per day total
Per day 1.43 gallons Shower 186 gallons a day overall Food (Possibly not completely cleansed) Depending on the preparation, the water used may be boiled and thus purified before or during use.
10 gallons a day Medical 10 gallons a week Waste removal (Not likely cleansed water) Sanitation group will use ocean water and relatively unclean excess water for their purposes and do their best not to contaminate natural water. Method of transportation - In order for the water to be useable, we must monitor how much it is polluted.
- Quality is determined by Dissolved Oxygen in water (fish survive at a minimum of .003g/L).
-Main concerns include nitrates (get converted to nitrites, which could be carcinogenic if consumed in vast quantities), and heavy metal pollution (try to not pollute the river with painted items, or metal items from the ship, as these are common sources of heavy metals).
-Proposed idea: have random water sample tests along the river/waterfall area to make sure pollutants are not interfering with the quality (use a pH testing kit- safe range is around 6 to 8 in pH level because anything less than 6 is acidic, or soft, which is potentially lethal, and anything too far greater than 8 is hard, or basic, and isn't deadly, but is bad).
-Nitrate test: react water with acid and see if solid forms (react with common weak acids found on ship like vinegars). -Water could be transported using
hollowed out logs lined with adobe to protect from wood contamination/absorption
-Water could also be transported, potentially, using large, hollow parts of the ship such as part of the hull
-On a smaller scale, coconuts could be broken and used as cups
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