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Romeo & Juliet

Summary Notes and additional facts for Grade 9 ELA
by

Natasha Bellows

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of Romeo & Juliet

Act I scene i
Act I
Prologue

In these 16 lines, the CHORUS establish the setting as Verona, an Italian city. Its warring, noble families are again fighting over an old dispute. The children of both families become lovers and their deaths ultimately end the feud.
Romeo & Juliet
Summary Notes for Acts and Scenes
Act I scene i (con't)
Escalus, the prince, breaks up the fight and declares that if another fight occurs both Capulet and Montague will be put to DEATH!!

Capulet leaves with the prince while Lord ad Lady Montague remain behind.

The Montagues then ask Benvolio to explain the cause of the fight, which he does. Then they ask about their son Romeo.

Benvolio has seen Romeo wandering about the edge of the city, acting strangely. Later Romeo admits to Benvolio that Romeo has fallen in love with Roasaline, but is out of favor with her.
Side Note to Text
What is an OXYMORON?

*This is an examinable term
Act 1 scene ii
Paris, a kinsman of the Prince, asks
Lord Capulet for permission to marry
his daughter Juliet. Although Capulet
feels she is too young, his only
concern is that his last remaining
child be happy. He consents to
marriage only if Juliet is in love.
The use of oxymorons serves to startle the reader and to convey how it feels to have mixed emotions. Romeo is experiencing the loss of love and expressing his confusion.
"heavy lightness"
"serious vanity"
"Sick health"
.... the list goes on
Act I scene i l.170-174
So what is a Prologue anyways?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prologue#Elizabethan
And... What's a Chorus??
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_a_chorus_in_Shakespeare
3 Minute Writing Slip

Topic: THE PROLOGUE PROVIDES MANY OF THE MOST
BASIC DETAILS OF THE STORY LINE. SOME CRITICS
BELIEVE THAT TOO MUCH IS GIVEN AWAY IN TERMS
OF THE PLOT.
- HOW DO YOU FEEL?
- WHAT PURPOSE DOES THE SPEECH SERVE?
- DOES THE PROLOGUE GIVE AWAY TOO MUCH; THEREFORE REDUCING THE SUSPENSE?
- OR DOES THE PROLOGUE CREATE A DIFFERENT KIND OF SUSPENSE?
NOW, LET'S
READ THE PROLOGUE!
On a Saturday afternoon, Sampson and Gregory (servants of the Capulets - Juliet's family), joke with each other and brag about what each would do if he encountered members of the Montague (Romeo) household.

Seeing Abraham and Balthasar, servants of the Montagues, Sampson insults them by biting his thumb (this would be similar to perhaps giving someone the middle finger nowadays).

This starts a fight.

Benvolio, Romeo's cousin, stops the fight only to be drawn into it again by Tybalt, Lady Capulet's hot tempered nephew.

......
Socratic Circles
In small groups, take turns sharing your thoughts and opinions on the following prompts (Keep in mind that it is ok to have different opinions, challenging and questioning our thoughts is what makes us LEARN!!!
- Outline some of the comic elements of this scene.
- To what extent is Romeo's "love" comic?
- Tybalt is one of the most important characters of this play, outline some of the reasons why he is such a memorable character.
- Is Romeo in love with Rosaline or is it infatuation? Is there a difference?
Capulet gives an illiterate servant a list of people to invite to a party that night.

The servant seeks help of strangers in the street, who happen to be Romeo and Benvolio!!!

When the young men discover that ROSALINE is on the list, they decide to crash the party!!!!
Act I scene iii
Act I scene iv
Later that evening in the street, Romeo and his friends, Benvolio and Mercutio, a cousin of the Prince, have to put on masks to crash the party at the Capulets'. Mercutio delivers the 'Queen Mab' speech.
MISCOMMUNICATION...
Romeo and Juliet has been
called a TRAGEDY of FATE
because its ending depends
so much on CHANCE and
COINCIDENCE...as you
continue to read, keep note of
these instances!
Lady Capulet, while being interrupted frequently by the Nurse, manages to ask Juliet how she feels about being married.

Juliet makes no promise to consent unless she likes what she sees when she meets Paris.
Juliet's Nurse
A few notes on
.......
- She is not a medical NURSE as we think of the term today. She was more like a NANNY to Juliet.
- Her own daughter Susan, died as an infant; she was then hired as Juliet's wet nurse.
- Since she raised Juliet, she is Juliet's closest confidante.

- The nurse is not described in any flattering terms ~ old, fat, ugly....
- She is sort of a comical character who's
humor is very rude and crude.....

**CHALLENGE: try to find examples of jokes made about or by the nurse**
Although Juliet does not speak much in this
scene, we learn a great deal about her character.

What are your first impressions of Juliet.

TPS
Think about your impressions on your own.
Then get with a partner and compare your
lists.
Share with the class
Now read this scene...
Time to read again....
HUH??? WHO'S QUEEN MAB??
Queen Mab is the fairy queen that Mercutio descibes as coming to bewitch men in her tiny carriage made of a hazelnut shell, with a cover or grasshopper's wings and wagon spokes of spider legs, all drawn by motes driven by a liveried gnat.

Before leaving for the party, Romeo states that he fears some serious events will result from this evening.
At the Capulets', Lord Capulet makes his guests welcome. When Romeo (who has come only to see Rosaline) see Juliet, he falls in love with her immediately.

Not knowing that she is his family's enemy, he woes Juliet by comparing her to a holy shrine and his lips to religious pilgrims that journey to it. With a kiss, they realize they are in love.
Act I scene v
Question: what type of figurative language does Romeo use when woeing Juliet?
lines 97-99
Answer: METAPHOR
Meanwhile, Tybalt recognizes Romeo and informs
Lord Capulet that their enemy mocks them
by crashing the party. Capulet decides not to
make an issue and lets Romeo and his friends
stay.

Romeo discovers Juliet's identity and leaves. Juliet
sends the Nurse to discover her new lover's
identity. When Juliet learns that Romeo is her
enemy, she also recognizes that it is too late,
for now, she too, is in love.
Act II
Prologue
The chorus both comments upon Romeo and Juliet having fallen in love (lines 6-15). Both Romeo and Juliet, as young people who have often desired love, have unknowingly found it in their sworn enemies. They find it is not quite as charming as they thought it would be. Filled with passion, however, they are willing to meet secretly.
Act II scene I
Act II scene ii
Act II scene ii continued...
Socratic Circle

Focus Question: Given the long-standing nature of the Montague-Capulet feud, why would you, as Romeo or Juliet do, be willing to risk either the love and protection of your family or your life to end it?
Exploration Questions:

1. What kind of risks would you be willing to take in order to see someone of whom your family did not approve?
2. Given the feud, what risks and precautions does each take to see the other?
3. What type of risks and precautions does our society view as being beneficial- what types do we not condone?
4. Even if it meant disapproval from society, why would you be willing to risk seeing someone that the community felt you shouldn't?
Late Saturday night or early Sunday morning, Romeo
sneaks down the road outside Capulet's orchard.

Questioning whether or not he can go back, he climbs
the wall.

Benvolio, Mercutio, and others come down the lane
looking for Romeo, calling his name.

Mercutio pretends that Romeo is dead of love for
Rosaline and tries to raise Romeo's ghost again by
calling upon the magic of Rosaline's spirit.
Romeo remains in the shawdows as he sees Juliet on her balcony. Struck by her beauty, he compares Juliet to the sun, outshining the moon.
"It is the east, and Juliet is the sun!" .... is an example of..
... figurative language.... more specifically - a metaphor.....
When she leans her head on her hand, Romeo wishes
to be a glove on it, in order to touch her cheek.
Juliet continues speaking aloud, unaware of Romeo. She wishes Romeo weren't a Montague, but concludes that his name, not his person, is the enemy.
Act II scene ii continued....
When Romeo speaks, startling Juliet,
he tells her that he would change his
name for her happiness.

Juliet is afraid for his safety; if he's caught,
the Capulets will kill him. Caught up in love,
Romeo fears NOTHING. They swear their love
to each other and agree to be married.
Act II scene iii
Shortly after dawn on Sunday,
Friar Laurence gathers herbs and wild flowers to make medicines. When Romeo appears, the Friar notices that Romeo looks as though he has been out all night!
Time to read Act II scene ii
ACTIVITY TIME!!
In a small group (3-4 people), chose one of the following activities to complete:

1. Imagine you are a talk show host interviewing newly engaged R&J. In a series of questions, interview R&J in such a way as to review the information provided thus far as well as predictions as the what kinds of consequences their actions may have.

2. Rewrite the balcony scene for this modern-day version.

*Share skits with your class :)
Act II scene iii ....
The Friar asks if he's been with Rosaline.
Romeo tells the priest that he is now in love
with Juliet.

Friar Laurence scolds him for falling in and
out of love too quickly!!!

Although Romeo tries to convince F.L that
he is truly in love, FL advises him to proceed
slowly with love.
Act II scene iv
While Romeo has been conferring with the friar, Benvolio and Mercutio continue to search for Romeo.

Tybalt, has sent a letter to Romeo challenging him to a duel for crashing the party. Mercutio point out Tybalt's skill as a swordsman.

When Romeo appears, Mercutio accuses him of having spent the night with a French prostitute and is irritated that Roemo ditched them.

Mercutio teases Romeo, who takes it in good humor....
Act III scene iv
The nurse, who acts as Juliet's messenger has dressed in her best clothes and tries to act like a lady, comes to meet Romeo in the square.
Mercutio and Benvolio, thinking she is a prostitute, taunt her when she asks for Romeo.
Romeo finally sends the boys home and talks to the nurse.
Act III scene iv....
Romeo tells the Nurse that Juliet should come to F. L`s cell, where they will be
MARRIED that afternoon!!!!

Romeo also tells the Nurse to meet Balthasar, his servant, to get a rope ladder, so Romeo can sneak into the house later that night....
Act II scene v
Act II scene v
This INFURIATES Juliet!!!
Plants and Poison

Symbolism, Imagery, Allegory


Poison is a big deal in Romeo and Juliet. Romeo dies by it when he guzzles a concoction he purchased (illegally) from the sickly Apothecary in Act 5, Scene 3. Poison is also Juliet's first choice of "weapon" for suicide. When she figures out what Romeo has done, she tries to lick the poison from his lips but there's not enough left to kill her (5.3.2). Of course, all of this is
foreshadowed
when Juliet drinks a concoction (whipped up by Friar Laurence) that causes a deep, deep sleep that simulates death (4.3.3).
Continue
Reading ...
Juliet paces the orchard waiting for the Nurse to return - she was supposed to be back at 9:30- but it's now shortly after noon!!

When the Nurse does return, she says she is tired and wishes to rest before delivering Romeo's message.
Let's keep reading...
Only when the Nurse is certain that she and Juliet
are alone does she deliver the message.

The Nurse hurries Juliet to the meeting while she
goes to collect the ladder.
Friar Lawerence says, "Wisely, and slow. They stumble that run fast." (II.iii.97)
This is a PROVERB:
-a statement of general truth or piece of advice
The Friar's first speech presents a long series of contrasts.
What's CONTRAST and why would it be effective?
Contrast: to examine two or more items by only looking at their differences
Effectiveness??
SYMBOLISM:
something concrete, such as a person, object, image, word, or event that represents something abstract, such as a feeling, emotion, idea or concept; may be very recognizable and common to many people (e.g., religious symbols, national flags, logos, etc.); often used to reinforce meaning.

soliloquy:
The act of talking while or as if alone; often used as a device in drama to disclose a character's innermost thoughts or feelings.
Act II scene vi
Friar Laurence warns Romeo that the young man may be caught up in his passion and warns him to proceed cautiously. When Romeo and Juliet meet, FL is convinced that they are truly in love.

Hoping to end the feud, FL agrees to marry them.
A few more
EXAM
inable terms...
Before Romeo and Juliet take their lives, Friar Laurence, who's big into herbal medicine, looks at a flower and makes a cryptic statement that seems to echo throughout the play:

Within the infant rind of this weak flower
Poison hath residence and medicine power:
For this, being smelt, with that part cheers each part;
Being tasted, slays all senses with the heart.
Two such opposed kings encamp them still
In man as well as herbs, grace and rude will;
And where the worser is predominant,
Full soon the canker death eats up that plant. (II.iii.23-30)
Friar Laurence suggests that, depending on how it's used, a flower can be healing (because it's aromatic) or poisonous (if it's orally ingested).

The Friar also muses that people are a lot like the flower he holds in his hand – being full of both "grace" and "rude will," human beings also have the capacity to be good or deadly, depending on whether or not "rude will" takes over.

We can't help but notice that Friar Laurence's observations speak directly to the play's tragedy – Romeo and Juliet's love turns deadly when it's "poisoned" by their family's hateful feud. At the same time, their love also has the capacity to heal, which becomes evident when their parents decide to reconcile at the play's end.
Friar Lawrence (paraphrased) :
NOTICE
how I wrote the act/scene/line
(II.iii.23-30)
The smiling morning is replacing the frowning night.
Darkness is stumbling out of the sun's path like a drunk man.
Now, before the sun comes up and burns away the dew, I have to fill this basket of mine with poisonous weeds and medicinal flowers. The Earth is nature's mother and also nature's tomb. Plants are born out of the Earth and they are buried in the Earth when they die. From the Earth's womb, many different sorts of plants and animals come forth, and the Earth provides her children with many excellent forms of nourishment. Everything nature creates has some special property, and each one is different. Herbs, plants, and stones possess great power. There is nothing on Earth that is so evil that it does not provide the earth with some special quality. And there is nothing that does not turn bad if it's misused. Vice sometimes becomes virtue through the right activity.
Now, with a partner, analysis what Friar
Lawrence is saying and try to decipher the
significance of this soliloquy.
Act III scene i
Sunday afternoon, immediately following the wedding, Benvolio, Mercutio and several of the Montague's servants are in the public square.

Benvolio urges Mercutio to get out of the sun, for the Capulets are out, and he fears another fight.

But, Mercution puts Benvolio down for wanting to run from a fight
But what do we know of Benvolio `s character so far...
A fighter or a lover....??
Tybalt and the other Capulet's appear. Tybalt and Mercutio want to pick a fight and so they taunt each other.

Benvolio urges them to fight/talk somewhere
in private....

Remember what the Prince has said about
disturbing the peace in his streets...

This does not work; they draw their swords as Romeo appears.
Let's go Mercutio, there's trouble in the air and hot weather makes people angry.
You're a bit of a troublemaker yourself, Benvolio.
Am I??
You lose your
temper quicker
than any man
in Italy.
For what
reasons?
For any reason... you once
fought a man who coughed
and woke your dog..., and
another whose clothes you
didn't like..., and another who
used old laces to tie new shoes.
So don't tell me to control
myself!
How does this image of Benvolio contrast from the one we had been previously shown?
Romeo tries to stop the fight, stepping between them. Thrusting beneath Romeo's arm, Tybalt stabs Mercutio fatally and then runs away.

Although Mercutio makes a great act of dying, his friends think he's "just acting". When Romeo and the others realize that he is dying, it's too late.

They take him to a neighboring house, where he soon died.
Meanwhile, Romeo believes that he has lost his courage because of his love for Juliet and blames himself for Mercutio's death.

When Tybalt appears, Romeo, enraged, draws his sword and kills Tybalt.

The Prince and his men begin approaching, so Romeo flees.
Benvolio explains to the Prince, the Capulets, and the Montaques what has happened.

Lady Capulet demands Romeo's life for slaying Tybalt.

The Prince decides that Romeo should be banished rather than put to death.
Considering the Prince's decree about those caught fighting.... what do you think will happen to Romeo? What do you think SHOULD be his punishment?
Read this
scene...
Writing Slip
Why do you think Romeo killed Tybalt? Was it fate
or his destiny to do so? Was it because of the feud?
Or was it because of Romeo's basic character?

Include Support from the Text.
Act III scene ii
Juliet anxiously waits for Romeo in her garden.

The Nurse enters with the rope ladder crying
"HE'S DEAD."

At first, Juliet thinks the Nurse means Romeo, but she discovers that Romeo has killed Tybalt (remember, Tybalt is her family- cousin)

Juliet decides that R's banishment is worst than if she had recieved news that ALL of her family had died. She sends the Nurse to find Romeo and have him come to say goodbye.
Romeo, having sought sanctuary in F.L's cell, lies crying in the corner. F.L tells him that his sentence is banishment rather than death.

Romeo, like Juliet, sees this as a worst punishment because it will separate him from his wife.

The nurse comes and brings a ring, as a token from Juliet.

The friar scolds Romeo for crying and tells him to go to Mantua, a neighboring city and wait for an appropriate time to return when they can tell their families of the marriage and ask forgiveness of the Prince.
Act III, scene iii
After midnight early Monday morning, Capulet agrees to the marriage of Juliet to Paris on Thursday.
FATE, FEUD, or PERSONALITY?
Act III, scene iii
Act III scene v
At dawn on Monday, Romeo slips out of Juliet's chamber and prepares to ride to Mantua.

The Nurse enters, announcing that Lady Capulet is coming. The lovers part. Lady Capulet tells her daughter that she is to wed Paris on Thursday.

Juliet refuses.
When Lord Capulet enters, he finds Juliet in tears.

He thinks that she is crying over Tybalt.

When she refuses to marry Paris, Capulet threatens to
drag her to the church OR disown her, throwing
her into the streets to support herself.
After the Capulet's storm out, the Nurse urges Juliet to go ahead and marry Paris.

She points out that no one knows differently (as the marriage of R&J is still a secret and Romeo can't return to challenge the marriage between Paris and her).

Juliet sends the Nurse to her parents, telling them that she has gone to Friar L's for confession and absolution (for displeasing and disobeying her parents).

Instead, Juliet admits that she is going to the Friar for advice!
Symbolism and Imagry
In the first sixty lines of Act III scene v,
as R&J take their leave of each other, they
make numerous references to images of
light and darkness. make lists of the various
images. What conclusions can you draw on
the use of such images.
Act IV scene i
In FL's cell on Monday, Paris comes to discuss
the arrangements of the Thursday wedding.

Juliet interrpts and pretends to have come to
make confession.

Because confession needs to be heard in private,
Paris leaves but first asks Juliet to "confess"
that she loves him.
V.iv cont...
Juliet phrases her response cleverly so she
remains true to Paris...
"I will confess to you that I love him" (IV.i.26)
Of course, Paris assumes the "him" is him.

FL tells Juliet that he understands her grief.
Juliet says she wants him to come up with
a plan for her or she will kill herself!!!
(her and Romeo are the perfect couple....)
V.iv....continued some more....
The Friar recognizes how desperate she is - he
also warns her that suicide would bring
everlasting damnation to her soul.

He develops a plan....
THE PLAN....
HE GIVES HER A POTION HE'S MADE FROM HERBS/PLANTS.
The Plan in Detail....
She is to take the potion the night
before the wedding. It will put her
in a 42hr sleep....
Her Family will think she's DEAD!!
This will give FL two days to get a letter to Romeo informing him of the plan.
I'M SURE NOTHING
WILL GO WRONG
WITH THIS PLAN....
... WILL THE PLAN WORK??...
Once Juliet's family has buried
her in the family tomb, FL will come for her (on Friday evening) and help her escape to Mantua, where she can be with Romeo.
Act IV scene iii
Tuesday night, Juliet and the Nurse are in the process of selecting a dress for the wedding that Lord Capulet has moved to Wednesday.

Lady Capulet enters and askes if they need any help. When Juliet says "no", her mother and the nurse leave.

Juliet relates her fears in the long soliloquy
And They'll Live Happily Ever After..
Or......
Act IV scene ii
Meanwhile, all the Capulet household is making
preparation for the wedding feast. Capulet
is pleased that Juliet has gone to confession.
When she returns, she asks him for forgiveness and he does give it to her, thinking that she has agreed to marry Paris.

Sooooo, he decides to move the wedding up a day
- to Wednesday!!!
What's a SOLILOQUY again??
Act IV scene iii
She says farewell to her family and is tempted to call them back. She wonders if the potion will work or whether it will poison her, for FL may want her out of the way so he won't get in trouble for marrying her and Romeo!

She decides that the friar CAN be trusted after all.
But then she speculates upon what will happen to her if she isn't rescued from the tomb!!!!!

(insert panic)

Will she die in there....be attacked by ghosts....or simply go mad and kill herself anyway????

She takes the potion and falls onto her bed.
During the night, the whole household continues making preparations for the wedding.

At dawn on Wednesday, Capulet sends the Nurse to awaken Juliet for her wedding day.
ACT IV scene iv
Act IV scene v
When the nurse enters, she accuses Juliet of being lazy and wanting to stay in bed. When she shakes Juliet, she things that the girl is dead and alerts the entire household.

Lady Capulet, Lord Capulet, and Paris all mourn for Juliet.

Final FL enters and consoles the family, reminding them to rejoice, for Juliet's soul is in heaven.

What was to be a day of celebration becomes a day of mourning.
In Mantua, Romeo reveals that he has had a strange dream.....
In the dream, Juliet has found him dead, kissed him, and he revives, becoming an emperor.

Balthasar (his servant) comes with news that Juliet is dead, for Balthasar SAW the burial!
ACT V scene i
Romeo doesn't want to believe that she's dead.
He asks for horses to go to Verona and see for himself - he also asks if FL has sent any
letters... but he hasn't!

Romeo swears that he will be with Juliet
that night, and he remembers a
druggist who is shady enough to
sell him poison.
Romeo buys a small bottle of potion.
Act V scene ii
Meanwhile, Friar John, whom FL had sent to
Mantua with a letter revealing the plan to
Romeo, returns to FL's cell.

Friar John explains that he sought the help of
another monk when he got to Mantua- but the other monk had been exposed to pestilence and, with Friar John, was isolated by authorities.

Having failed (not getting the letter to Romeo),
Friar John returns to Verona with the letter.

FL realizes that Romeo will not be at the tomb
when Juliet awakens, so he hurries to be there
when she does and plans to hide Juliet in
his cell until Romeo does get there.

Although the selling of poison is against the law, the druggist sells it because he needs the money.

Romeo heads for Verona, where he plans to drink the poison next to Juliet's body.
Was it really the
Plague...

or

Maybe it was
FATE!!!!

-you be the judge!

Back to reading....
THE SUSPENSE IS KILLING
ME....
Paris sees Romeo breaking into the tomb. Paris believes that Romeo has come to take revenge on
the Capulets for being exhiled. When Paris confronts Romeo, Romeo asks to be left alone.

They Fight.
Romeo kills Paris.

Romeo grants Paris's dying wish to be placed
beside Juliet.

Act V scene iii
Paris and a page come to visit Juliet's grave. Paris tells the page to stand lookout and whistle if anyone approaches.

Romeo and Balthasar arrive. Romeo gives the servant a letter for FL and then commands the servant not to interfere, regardless of what he may see or hear.

Balthasar stays and hides!

When Romeo enters the tomb and sees Juliets's body, he recalls their love, takes the poison, and
dies.
FL, armed with tools to break into the tomb, arrives too late. He finds the bodies of both men.
Hearing Juliet awaken, he goes to her and tries to get her out of the tomb.

He tells her of the two deaths and offers to send her to a convent.
Hearing the Prince's men on watch approach, he exits.

Juliet realizes that Romeo has taken poison, but that his death was recent, for his lips are warm.

Wanting to join him in death, she tries to poison herself, first by the empty vial and then by kissing Romeo.

It doesn't work, so she takes Romeo's dagger,
stabs herself, and dies.

The watch comes and realizes that someone may
still be around. Some of the guards go to get the
Prince while others enter with Balthasar and
another group with Friar Laurence.

When the Prince enters, he demands and explanation. The Capulets and Montagues enter.

All realize Juliet has killed herself.
Montague reveals his wife has died from grief over Romeo's exile.

FL explains the whole story... all details.
He also explains why the plan didn't work.

Both Balthasar's testimony and Romeo's letter support FL's story.

As the sun is about to dawn, the Prince points out the consequences of the feud and that no further punishment is necessary.
The two men put aside the feud and promise to raise a statue of R&J to remind the town of their fate.
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