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Natural Selection

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by

Lindsey Lebakken

on 21 February 2018

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Transcript of Natural Selection

Charles Darwin
Biography
1809-1882
attended medical school and then went to study for the clergy
son of a wealthy British physician
Voyage of Beagle
1831
5 year mapping and collecting expedition
Darwin was a naturalist
Galapogos Islands:
group of islands with diverse species
Published:
The Origin of Species
1859
Alfred Wallace
1744-1829
Acquired traits:
An organism can gain or lose traits by use or disuse.
Can be passed:
from parent to offspring
True
False
Resulting in:
change in a species over time
Jean Baptiste de Lamarck:
Examples:
Short-necked giraffes stretch to reach high leaves and get long-necks.
Natural Selection
How could evolution occur?
Artificial Selection
Humans change species by breeding it for certain traits

Humans are selective agents
Heritability
Ability of a trait to be passed down from one generation to the next
Struggle/Advantage for Survival
Natural Selection
Mechanism by which individuals that have inherited beneficial adaptations produce more offspring on average than do others
Resources such as food, water, and shelter or disease were natural limits to population growth
Key Insights led to Darwin's Theory
Natural Selection Explains How Evolution Can Occur
Variation:
Overproduction and Competition:
Adaptation or Advantage:
Descent with Modification:
Hertiable differences that exist result from differences in genetic material
Having many offspring raises the chance that some will survive. Also results in competition between offspring
Some variations allow an organism to survive better. More successful individuals are "naturally selected" to live longer and reproduce
Over time, more individuals will have the trait in every generation after, as long as trait is still beneficial
The Principles of Natural Selection
Certain traits become more common in a population through the process of
natural selection
Overproduction
A jaguar may produce many offspring, but not all of the young will survive due to competition for resources.
Variation
Some jaguars, may be born with slightly larger jaws and teeth due to natural variation in the population.
Larger Jaw
Smaller Jaw
Adaptation
Jaguars with larger jaws and teeth are able to eat shelled reptiles. These jaguars are likely to survive longer and leave more offspring
Descent with Modification
Because large teeth and jaws are heritable traits, they become more common characteristics in the population
Fitness
The ability to survive and produce more offspring
The "fittest" is not always the "strongest".
Full transcript