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Sport Development in Southampton: A critical analysis of local sporting initiatives
Transcript of Sport Development in Southampton: A critical analysis of local sporting initiatives
(Bramham & Hylton, 2008, p.1). "a process whereby effective opportunities, processes, systems and structures are set up to enable and encourage people in all or particular groups and areas to take part in sport and recreation or to improve their performance to whatever level they desire"
(Collins, 1995 cited in: Houlihan, 2011, p.3). The local climate for sport in Southampton Moving with Maths Currently in operation at 1 primary school working with children with behavioural issues.
Focuses on improving physical literacy and academic ability.
Works in line with the national curriculum.
The primary objective of this initiative is to help combat this statistic:
"In the UK, around 27 per cent of children are now overweight and research suggests the main problem is a continual reduction in the amount of exercise children take" (BBC, 2012),
Long term aim is to integrate EduMove into schools as part of the timetable. Box2fitness The project at Southampton Solent University currently mobilises a number of student led projects every year aimed at contributing to the provision of Sport Development in Southampton. During the projects, students are encouraged to:
Research the needs of a local community
Engage with local agents to formulate a coaching/sport intervention for the community.
Develop and deliver the project with sustainable outcomes.
Monitor and Evaluate the project. Currently due to commence on 25th January 2013.
Aims to tackle the 16- 19 age drop out rate through Boxing and Boxercise sessions.
Links have been created between Secondary Education, College and University.
Links to exit routes to competitive boxing.
Non-profitable innovation that incorporates volunteers as actors.
Aim is to create a sustainable project that improves physical activity and links between education sectors. Community Sport Development Mostly located in the public and voluntary sectors.
Practised in youth and community work, social services, probation services and education among others.
Community Sports Networks (CSN's) are essentially alliances of local organisations that co-operate in the provision of sporting opportunities that benefit the community.
(Hylton & Totten, 2008, p.78-79). "Any coming together of organisations (often through representatives) or interested individuals to further sport experiences can be considered to constitute a partnership" "Partnership working centres on the idea that agencies make a commitment in terms of what they are able to input into the relationship, on the basis that some or all of the outputs will help them to achieve their overall goals"
(Robson, 2008, p.118-119). Active Southampton., 2010. Vision for Sport and Physical Activity [online] [viewed 10th January 2013]. Available from: http://www.southampton.gov.uk/Images/Active%20Southampton%20Vision%20for%20Sport%20and%20Physical%20Activity%202010–2013_tcm46-275890.pdf
Adams, A., 2011. Sports development and social capital. In: B. Houlihan and M. Green. Routledge Handbook of Sports Development. Abingdon: Routledge.
BBC Sport., 2012. Cycling, triathlon and netball will get extra Sport England funding [online] [viewed 7th January 2012]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/sport/0/20755057
Bourdieu, P., 1999. The weight of the world: social suffering in contemporary society. Great Britain: Stanford University Press.
Bramham, P. and K. Hylton., 2008. Introduction. In: K. Hylton and P. Bramham. Sports Development: Policy, Process and Practice. 2nd Ed. Abingdon: Routledge. Boxfit EduMove Boxfit EduMove Sustainability Boxfit EduMove Social Capital Boxfit EduMove Monitoring and Evaluation "networks, norms, relationships, values and informal sanctions that shape the quantity and cooperative quality of a society's interactions" The promotion of volunteering has encouraged people to work together for common purposes by establishing bonds of trust and commitment.
(Adams, 2011, p.72-73) Rational Strain (Coleman, 1990)
Critical Strain (Bourdieu, 1999)
Democratic Strain (Putnam, 2001) - (Bonding/Bridging) Individual - longer-term changes in individuals’ attitudes, aptitudes and/or behaviour through involvement with the sports development programme.
Community - maintenance of changes in the community in which the sports development programme is delivered.
Organisational - The maintenance or expansion of sports development programmes by the organisation responsible for their delivery.
Institutional - longer-term changes in policy, practice, economic and environmental conditions in the wider context of the sports development programme. Four types of sustainability: Project design and implementation factors
Factors within the organisation setting
Factors in the broader community environment
(Lindsey, 2008, p.281-284) Factors affecting sustainability: Government are focused on raising levels of participation off the back of the recent Olympic Games and sustaining this growth in participation long term (DCMS, 2012).
Sport England are injecting 493 million pounds into grassroots and community sport over the next 4 years and 150 million pounds into school sport up to 2015 (BBC Sport, 2012; Youth Sport Trust, 2012).
However, number of School Sport Partnerships (SSP) have dropped by over 500 and 60% less time is dedicated to organising school sport nationwide.
The health of people in Southampton is generally worse than the England average.
46% of Southampton adults are currently doing no regular physical activity with 26% of adults obese (Nat. avg 24%).
9.27% of children in reception year in Southampton are obese rising to 17.03% by year 6.
(Active Southampton, 2010)
Number of 16-19 year old's competing in sport once a week nationally has rose by 750,000 over the last year (once a week), yet decreased by over 100,000 in 3 times per week.
(BBC Sport, 2012) Active Southampton: Vision for Sport Pluralism - "...decision-making in the policy process is characterised as a 'partisan mutual adjustment' between policy actors where policy-makers make 'selective limited comparisons' between policy choices"
(King, 2009, p.25) Southampton City Council is supporting and facilitating the Active Southampton Vision for the provision of sport and physical activity opportunities through a partnership-lead approach.
Vision aims to increase sustainable participation in physical activity leading to reduced obesity and improved health in our communities alongside increased social cohesion and reduced inequalities.
Priority 1 - Increase rates of adult participation in physical activity
Priority 2 - Increase rates of children and young people in physical activity
Priority 3 - Building the capacity of the workforce including volunteers
(Active Southampton, 2010) “assessments at various stages during the project would also be useful to track progress and allow feedback, assessments after the project to find out how the benefits last”
(Long, 2008, p.250) Feedback Questionnaires to be administered during and following the initiative.
Exit routes will provide indication of further sporting involvement.
Number of participants enrolling in college/university.
Sustainability of the project. In class maths tests before, during and after.
Questionnaires administered to participants.
Interviews - Coaches, Teachers and Parents.
Would benefit by using process of evidence based policy making. Evaluation is seen as an important part of decision making. Programmes should be evaluated to measure the extent to which they are achieving.
Effectiveness (Achieving what they set out to achieve)
Efficiency (At what cost?)
(Veal, 2002, p.211) Internal/External
Formative/Summative (Harlen, 2005, p.207) Links between Sholing Tech Secondary School, Itchen College and Southampton Solent University.
Access to City Gym (Boxing Club).
Each link provides a service and have individual goals that factor into the collective goal.
Contributing to aims/targets of PESSYP & PESSCL Strategy Effective Link between Shirley Warren Primary School and Southampton Solent University.
Level of partnerships could be improved by creating a link with college to provide further volunteers - aid growth of the initiative.
Formation of partnerships could prove difficult due to nature of school system.
Contributing to aims/targets of PESSYP Strategy Evidence Based Policy Making - "Increased emphasis on outcomes and effectiveness...to base policy and practice on robust evidence".
(Coalter, ,pg.25) Have they addressed the needs of the community?
How can each be improved?
Problems with each initiative?
Are they sustainable? Relies on organisational aspects to be sustainable.
Currently have a plan in place to keep the initiative running for a further year.
Community aspects are valuable to the nature of the initiatives sustainability.
Expansion would require larger base of volunteers and partners. Institutional factors - i.e. larger focus on school sport, change in government policies etc.
Expansion would require larger base of volunteers and partners. Grand scale expansion would most likely require funding.
Dependent on evidence that maths learning is not negatively affected. Democratic strain
Links between the public, organizations and schools
Networks are formed
Relies on its actions of the actor in order to assess its productivity Democratic strain
Networking between schools and University
Building trust between the organisations
What are the school providing?
Who else is benefitting apart from the school?
Not addressing the needs of the public, only a specific group Coalter, F., 2007. A Wider Social Role for Sport: Who's Keeping the Score? Abingdon: Routledge.
Coalter, F., Coleman, J., 1990. Foundations of social theory. United States of America: First Harvard University Press.
Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS)., 2012. Creating a sporting habit for life: A new youth sport strategy [online] [viewed 11th December 2012]. Available from: http://www.sportengland.org/about_us/what_we_do.aspx
Gibson, O., 2012. Drop in school sport blamed on funding cuts [online] [viewed 10th January 2013]. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2012/jul/18/shool-sport-drop-funding-cuts
Harlen, W., 2005. Teachers' summative practices and assessment for learning - tensions and synergies [online] [viewed 11th January 2013]. Available from: http://faculty.ksu.edu.sa/yousif/DocLib/Courses/CI%20603/Course%20material/teachers%20summative%20assessment.pdf Houlihan, B., 2011. Introduction. In: B. Houlihan and M. Green. Routledge Handbook of Sports Development. Abingdon: Routledge.
Hylton, K. and M. Totten., 2008. Community Sports Development. In: K. Hylton and P. Bramham. Sports Development: Policy, Process and Practice. 2nd Ed. Abingdon: Routledge.
King, N., 2009. Sport Policy and Governance: Local Perspectives. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.Lindsey, I., 2008. Conceptualising sustainability in sports development. Leisure Studies, vol. 27 (3), pp.279-294.
Long, J., 2008. Research and Evaluating Sports Development. In: K. Hylton and P. Bramham. Sports Development: Policy, process and practice. 2nd Ed. Routledge: London.
Putman, R., 2001. Bowling alone: the collapse and reveal of an American community. New York: Simon & Schuster paperbacks.
Robson, S., 2008. Partnerships In Sport. In: K. Hylton and P. Bramham. Sports Development: Policy, Process and Practice. 2nd Ed. Abingdon: Routledge.
Veal, A., 2002. Leisure and Tourism Policy and Planning. 2nd Ed. Wallingford: CABI Publishing.
Youth Sport Trust., 2012. About the games [online] [viewed 17th December 2012]. Available from: http://www.yourschoolgames.com/about-the-games References References Anthony Lampitt