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2D vs. 3D Media
Transcript of 2D vs. 3D Media
Lithography and Silkscreen.
Lithography is another form of printmaking but in lithography, the picture is on the plate itself. The artist draws on the flat surface of limestone with a greasy crayon, then is dampened with water. When the artist rolls oily ink on the plate, the damp part of the surface repels the ink, but the crayoned lines receive the ink. The lines are then transferred to paper. Lithography often resembles a drawing made with charcoal.
Oil, acrylic, fresco and mosaic.
"Acrylics are a relatively new form of art, having only come in to use in the 1940's. Acrylic is extremely flexible compared to other forms of painting. "
"Prints are like drawing, but can be used several times."
"There is another form of prints known as intaglio prints, which are the opposite of relief prints. The artist cuts the line that are to plate into the print. The two types of intaglio prints, engravings and etchings. To do an engraving, the artist cuts the lines into the plate using a special gouge called a burin. To do an etching, the artist covers the plate with wax and then draws into the layer with a needle. The plate is then placed into acid, which eats into the exposed lines. The engraving below on the left is an etching, the image below on the right is an engraving."
Painting is the most well known form of art.
2D vs. 3D Media
"2D art has height and width but no depth."
"3D art has height, width, and depth"
"Drawing is making controlled marks on a paper with a tool such as charcoal, pen and ink, pencil, crayon, or felt marker."
The first drawing was actually made not on paper, but on cave walls.
Drawing is often monochromatic, which means that the color of the tool and the color of the object are the only colors that are used.
"The amount of graphite in a pencil determines the type of line it can make."
Chalk is another form of drawing, but instead of being monochromatic, chalk is colored.
Pastels are high quality forms of chalk with a wide range of colors.
Watercolors consist of pigments mixed with water.
Another form of painting is tempura, when pigments are mixed with emulsions, which are watery liquids with drops of oil suspended in them. Tempura is opaque, which allows it to be painted over previously painted areas.
"Painting consists of colored powders called pigments and a liquid that the pigments are applied to."
"Another form of painting is gouache, which is a cross between watercolor and tempura. Gouache is water based and is usually applied to paper, like watercolor. However, gouache is much easier to control than watercolor and is opaque like tempura."
Oil is the most popular and well known form of painting. "Oil is much more flexible than tempura. It can be opaque or translucent, thick or thin. It also dries slowly which is good because it means that artists can blend colors and have a greater variety of effects. Oil is almost always painted on canvas because it is very light and can even be rolled up." The painting of Napoleon on the left and the painting of the street on the right are both oil paintings.
tempura, watercolors, and gouache
"Fresco is an extremely old form of art. It is spread onto a wall as wet plaster and then painted over before the plaster has even dried
Fresco is not versatile at all but it will last a long time because it it literally is the plaster.
"Mosaic is a picture composed of tiny pieces of stone or glass. They are typically used decorating a wall, ceiling, or floor. They are colorful and durable, like frescoes. However, they have not been popular since the 1300's."
"Relief prints are prints that raised above the rest of the paper. They are made by drawing on a block of wood and raising whatever they drew. It is also possible to make colored woodcuts. They are made so that whatever part of the cut is colored is placed at a different time from the rest of the cut, which means that the cut has multiple layer."
"A plate is the surface on which the picture or design is made. To produce a print, a piece of paper is pressed against an inked plate. "
Silkscreen is the newest style of printmaking. It uses a form of stenciling to make prints. The artist creates an image on a stencil, and then places it on a stretchable surface like nylon, and then the stencil is adhered to the screen. The artist then forces ink through the open areas of the screen. A separate screen is needed for every color printed. Because it doesn't use heavy plates or presses, it is popular with artists.
In the modern era, photography is the art of the people. Although most people use digital cameras, the majority of professional photographers use film. Photographers select scenes from life, and capture the light reflected from those scenes on the light sensitive film. "The camera is a dark box with a lens that lets in light when the photographer trips the shutter, which opens and closes very quickly. The film is developed to make the scene visible by dipping it in special chemicals. "
Film is a series of pictures, each with a slightly different position, that are being moved quickly from one photograph to another to give the illusion of motion. The pictures are printed on a long strip of film and are projected for on a screen for many to see. Many pictures are taken at high speeds and then are run through a projector at the same speed and with the same stop and go motion. 24 pictures are taken per second on a typical sound film. After the film is shot, the scenes are cut and put together as a final product. This stage of film is called editing.
Video and computer art
"Video is the picture portion of television. The images seen on television are created by electronic signals. A video camera is a tube with a lens and a photosensitive electronic plate in the back. For broadcast, the image on the plate is converted to electronic signals by a scanner." The signals are transmitted to a television receiver. "There the signals are converted back to the original image. TV signals can be stored on a magnetic disk and be played back at any time. Many artists now use video instead of film. The technology for computer art is developing rapidly and constantly changing.
Mixed media art
Many artists mix together multiple types of art together. One of these mix media types of art is the collage. "Collage consists of fragments of things pasted on flat surfaces. The artist may use photographs, colored paper, pieces of material, news clippings, or other odds and ends." Collage was invented around 1912 by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, and have become very popular in recent years. Another form of mixed media art is documented art. It is temporary, therefore it needs to be documented so that people know that it existed, hence the name documented art.
"Sculpture refers to any way of creating three-dimensional forms from any available material." Some sculptures are meant to be seen from all sides and are freestanding. Wood carving and stone carving both form sculptures by removing material from the sides. Both wood and stone carving takes are very taxing. The artist sometimes makes clay models to show what they are planning to make the sculpture look like. The artist will make a rough shape of the sculpture with heavy tools. The artists uses wooden mauls, chisels, points, and air hammers to chip, carve, and make details. There is another type of sculpture that is not freestanding that is known as relief sculpture. Relief sculptures project from a background surface. If it is only a slight projection, it is known as low relief. If 50% or more of the of the modeled surface projects out from the background, it is high relief. Casting is different from other types of sculpture in that while wood carving and stone carving both involve removing material, casting involves filling a mold with a material that will harden and reproduce the volume and surface detail of the mold. The mold can be plastic, plaster, metal, or concrete. Another type of sculpture is modeling, which produces a sculpture from a pliable material like clay, papier-mache, wax, or plaster, It can also use clay, which is shaped, dried, and kiln fired to hard forms called ceramics. Another form of sculpture is construction, which are built from traditional materials and from modern industrial technologies. Another form of sculpture is assemblage, which are sculptures constructed from prefabricated parts that weren't originally meant to be used for sculpture. The final type of sculpture is kinetic sculpture, which are sculptures that move.
"Conceptual art places the emphasis on the object rather than the idea." Conceptual art grew out of the need to defy the establishment and to make artwork available to those other than the very rich. There is also performance art, which grew out of artists desire to interact with viewers more directly. Performance art involves anything that has to do with a performance for viewers.
Environmental and site specific art
Sculptural forms made primarily of earth, rocks, and plants are known as earthworks. These works change the natural settings, but are designed to merge with the landscape. There are also works that place objects on or over a location but don't change them. These works of art are called environmental art. There is also site specific art, which are conceived for the specific area that they are displayed.
Installation art is art that links 2D and 3D art. It often involves objects being suspended from the walls or ceiling.
Pottery are the containers that we eat, drink, and store food and drink with. Pottery can either be hand built or thrown on the wheel. In hand building, the pottery starts out as a ball of clay that can be indented and shaped with the hands. Designed can then be cut or pressed upon the surface. The pottery is then fired at the kiln to harden. Clay can also be "thrown" on the wheel. That is when clay is formed with a pottery wheel. It lets a person make symmetrical and round pots in much less time than with the hand building method.
Jewelry and Metal Art
There are many different ways to make jewelry. There are many different ways to make jewelry, including repousse and annealing. In reqousse, the metal is hammered on one side to make shapes on the other side. In annealing, the metal is heated to make it easier to shape.
Fiber art and soft sculpture
Weaving is the most common form of fiber art. Weaving can be done on a motorized loom or a wooden loom. Sometimes, layers of fiber are woven together and then gathered together to create depth. Fiber art can be 2D or 3D.
Glass art can be two-dimensional or three-dimensional. Hot glass can be bent, twisted, or pulled into shapes. There is also stained glass, which is often used as a window, which is very beautiful when the light is filtered into colors.