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ESL Strategies

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Sandra Rodríguez

on 28 August 2013

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Transcript of ESL Strategies

Bilingual books and labels in the classroom encourages students to value other cultures and languages around them.
Additional Benefits
October 17th, 2012
Vocabulary and Language Structures
Total Physical Response
Realia Strategies
Modeled Talk
Vocabulary Role-Playing
Leveled Questions
Collecting and Processing Words
Language Focus Lessons
Sorting Activities
Culturally Based Language Teaching
October 17th, 2012
Listening and Speaking
Before/during/after- activate prior knowledge before reading, during reading model reading strategies like making connections, after reading consolidate/elaborate/deepen understanding of text and connections
Writing and Grammar
Syntax Surgery
A great activity for students could be dividing the class into small groups and giving students problematic sentences. The students will then cut and sort the sentences so that they make sense. Allow the students to really act out the role of being a doctor perhaps include props such as surgical gloves. In their groups the students will sort the sentence and then tape the correct sentences to the wall. This could be a competitive activity to identify correct parts of speech. Depending on language level have students write their own sentences and do a sort with those sentences. Can be specific toward any part of speech.

Interactive Writing
An activity for this strategy could involve a teacher giving a lesson about the life cycle of pumpkins. The teacher would begin by asking the students what they know about pumpkins and create sentences together for each stage of how a pumpkin grows. This activity would help students learn vocabulary, pronunciation, sentence formation, and about seasons. It would also encourage student participation and provide teacher guidance.
Primary Language Support
Making Content Comprehensible for ELLs
Group Work
Role Play
Barrier Games
Obstacle Course
What Am I?
Acting out Stories
Class Discussions
Strategies for Classroom Interaction
Oral language skills are more important for reading larger chunks of text for comprehension than for reading at the word level.
Oral language skills in English are strongly associated with English reading comprehension.
Oral Language skills in English are associated with better English writing.
English oral language proficiency is not strongly related to English spelling skills.
L1 language literacy skills plus good English oral language skills are strongly associated with good English reading comprehension skills.
ELLs need consistent ESL instructions.
National Literacy Panel Report
Listening and Speaking
Zarina - Stephanie
Cooperative Learning
Think, Pair, Share.
Round Table
Concentric Circles
Numbered Heads Together
Strategies for Classroom Interaction
Oral Retellings
Songs and Chants
Oral Presentations
Minimal Pairs
Listening Comprehension Tasks
Listening Centers
TESOL Standards
How to Correct
Through recasts by responding naturally but in a manner that models the correct form.
In a manner that does not embarrass or ridicule the student.
With gentle reminders of past instructions.
When to Correct
When students are ready to learn the correct form.
When they impede comprehension.
When a particular form has been taught and is being practiced.
In the use of a target language form during content area instructions.
When the errors are offensive or embarrassing.
Correcting Student Speech Errors
The Silent Period

Wait Time

Teacher Talk in the Classroom

Correcting Student Speech Errors
Basic Issues for Oral Language Development in the Classroom,
1. English speakers do not pronounce individual words separately
2. English speakers do not always speak in complete sentences.
3.Oral language is invisible. Once spoken, an utterance is gone forever.
4. Speaking is much more than just vocabulary and grammar.
5. There are unwritten norms unknown to ELL learners.
Five Challenges for ELL Learners
TESOL Standards
Total Physical Response (TPR)
Listening Comprehension Tasks
Listening Centers
Oral Retelling
Songs and Chants
Oral Presentation
Minimal Pairs
Promoting Oral Language Development in the Classroom
The empirical literature on oral language development in ELL is SMALL.
It TAKES TIME for ELLs to develop oral English proficiency.
ELLs need some English PROFICIENCY BEFORE interaction with native speakers is beneficial.
Use of English OUTSIDE OF SCHOOL enhances ELLs' oral English development.
USE OF L1 for BEGINNING-level ELLs contributes to academic development.
English oral language proficiency TESTS FAIL to capture the full oral language proficiency of bilingual students.
Crede Report
Read-alouds- reading a text to students, choose a grade appropriate book, preread and plan interactions, during reading stop for discussions, after reading assess student progress and understanding
1. Predictable Routines and Signals
9. Cultural Studies
31. Bilingual Books & Labels:
preview-review; give quick explanations during whole-class or small-group instruct; give quick explanations for individual students; pull students aside to re-teach concepts; read aloud l1 books; accept students' contributions in the L1 during class discussions; label the classroom in English and the students' native language; other L1 instructional wall displays; create cognate word studies; use the L1 to support writing in English; provide bilingual dictionaries; accept initial writing in students' L1; read aloud native language versions of books read in class; provide native language and dual language books; send home letters in students' native language; students helping students; computer software; seek bilingual parent or community volunteers
Syntax Surgery
Scaffolding English Writing
Cohesion Links
Repeated Reading
Modeled Writing
Shared Writing
Guided Writing
Interactive Writing
Process Writing and Writer's Workshop
Shared reading- reading with students which encourages students to read along, choose texts closer to their reading ability, point to text as you are reading so that the student can follow along
Realia Strategy:
Introduce the season that you may be entering (e.g. fall, winter) not all students experience all seasons where they may be from. You can do this by showing things that you will normally see during that time of the year. Ex: fall, what people mostly do during this time of the year, bring pumpkins, fallen leafs, Indian corn, etc. Explain the leafs are used to make scarecrows, pumpkins are carved and or eaten, Indian corn is used for decoration, etc.
Guided reading- students read in small groups and teacher provides assistance
reducing anxiety!
Predictable Routines & Signals!
Language experience approach- the teacher records the student's story and the student reads the story and is able to connect written language to oral language
Imaging- teacher cultivates images in students minds while reading
Read, pair, share- partners read together and discuss "who, what, where, when, and how" questions
Repetition and innovation- use text in several different ways to reinforce different textual points
Because English language learners do not always understand everything that is said in the classroom, having set patterns, routines, and signals helps them relax about being able to follow the sequence of events and activities.
Cloze- omitting certain words to assess comprehension
Free voluntary reading- student selects book of interest and reads for enjoyment
Use the L1 to support writing in English/
Accept Initial writing in students' L1 as they transition to English writing:

Because writing can be extremely difficult for ELLs, allow them to prewrite/draft in their L1 before revising and writing their final product in English. If students have literacy skills in their L1, use them!
1. Set up your room!
2. Establish Routines!
3. Model Routines!
Example Activity:
At the beginning of class, greet the students in the traditional manner of the target language and have them greet you in return.
Always follow the same routine for class: Start with vocabulary, move onto utilizing the vocabulary in grammar, then pair students up for conversation practice using the new information they’ve gathered! Prepare students for that day's homework. End the day by exchanging the target language's goodbye.
Vocabulary Role-Play:

The instructor creates a list of vocabulary and will give to students to create a short skit or writing. Supermarket vocabulary is very important. The students will dress as a cashier or employee stocking shelves
and students will act as
customers trying to find and
purchase items. This can include
vocabulary like prepositions to show location, money and purchasing procedures, as well as types of foods.
have a brief discussion with students in their native language. the teacher asks the students to talk about everything they know about the subjects or the conepts before reading them in English.
Language experience approach- The teacher asks the student to verbally describe a situation in which something exciting happened to them. Teacher records the story and then the student reads the story.
Read the story
Retell the story
Gather or make the props
Store the props
Use the props for retelling
Assess the retellings
Story Reenactment
Identify the Vocabulary
Collect Visuals
Reproduce and Organize visuals
Engage the students
Build the file
Visual Scaffolding
Read the story
Retell the story
Gather or make the props
Store the props
Use the props for retelling
Assess the retellings
Story Reenactment
Prepare the students for action.
List and review the steps.
Verbalize the action.
Allow for verbal practice.
Celebrate the achievements
Write the reports.
Assess student progress and understanding.
Reporting Back

Adjust lessons and assessments to student intelligences
Observe and document student choices
Provide self-evaluation opportunities
Multiple Intelligences Strategies
Explain multiple intelligences

- bodily/kinesthetic
- intrapersona
- interpersonal
- linguistic
- logical/mathematical
- musical
- visual/ spatial
- naturalistic
Multiple Intelligences Strategies

Step by Step
Identify an opportunity for verbal interaction.
Explain and model the script.
Practice in pairs.
Assess student progress and understanding.
Identify the Vocabulary
Collect Visuals
Reproduce and Organize visuals
Engage the students
Build the file
Visual Scaffolding
who am i?
Culture Studies
•Culture studies are when students research and share information about their own cultural history. This strategy can incorporate history and social science curriculum. Skills involved include reading, writing, speaking, and listening.
1.Find an age-appropriate project.

2.Set up goals and parameters.

3.Make expectations clear.

4.Plan the culminating activity.

5.Assess student growth and progress.

6.Add technology.
Example Activity:
•Students create a timeline listing important events of the 20th Century. They place their own birth date on the timeline. The students will then interview their family members and members of their cultural group to discuss how the important events have influenced their culture. The students will then report to the class their research.
supporting biliteracy awareness!
Bilingual Books and Labels!
Having bilingual books and labels in your classroom: helps students activate background knowledge of home languages to support their understanding of texts in English; helps bring different cultures into your classroom; exposes all students to the different cultures and languages within their class; •Helps support transfer from home languages into English.
1.Identify languages in the classroom2.Pronounce and label common objects 3.Provide bilingual books (multiple copies in multiple languages)4.Provide translations5.Explore key vocabulary in several different languages
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