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Shaping a New Nation

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Andrea Martin

on 14 November 2018

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Transcript of Shaping a New Nation

Shaping a New Nation
Chapter 5

Shaping a New Nation
Chapter 5 Intro
Experimenting with Confederation
Chapter 5 Section 1
DRAFTING THE CONSTITUTION
Ratifying the Constitution
Section 3
SHAPING THE NATION REVIEW
DO NOW:
Social Science Skill Building: Primary/Secondary Source
Directions: Please write down the questions on your DO NOW sheet so that you answer them while watching the video:
Question 1: What holiday are we celebrating this weekend?
Question 2: What was the holiday's original name?
Question 3: Where is the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier?
Question 4: What month was this holiday celebrated in for 7 years during the 20th century?
Question 5: What U.S. President returned the celebration to the month of November?
Question 6: What is the difference between Veteran's Day and Memorial Day?
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
What were the greatest struggles facing the newly formed United States of America in 1783?
LEARNING LOOP 1:
Becoming a New Nation
ANCHOR CHARTS
DIRECTIONS: We will be creating ANCHOR CHARTS on the following topics:
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation (p. 149 for guidance)
Land Ordinances of the 1700s (p. 147 for guidance)
The Structure of the Constitution
The Compromises of the Constitution
Checks and Balances of the Constitution (p.155)
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

Each person will be given a subject and personalized instruction on how to complete your anchor chart. This is not a group assignment. Please work individually or prepare to receive a zero.
PRACTICE/PRODUCT:
Chapter 5 Vocabulary
What were the greatest struggles facing the newly formed United States of America in 1783?
REFLECTION
DIRECTIONS: Please read the following steps to complete the assignment:
Step 1: Please work quietly to complete the definitions for Chapter 5. If you have already finished or finish the definitions during class, continue down to the next step.
Step 2: Each student will be given a set words to create an illustration of to put on this chapters Vocabulary Anchor Chart. Please use the note card provided. You will write the definition on the side with the word and draw a picture/chart/graph/map/etc. on one side of the note card to illustrate your vocabulary words on the opposite side. You will then place the card (using tape) to the Chapter 5 Vocabulary Anchor Chart.
DO NOW:
Social Science Skill Building: Map
DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions about the map on this weeks DO NOW sheet:
Question 1: What information can you learn from the map?
Question 2: What color represents "special status areas"?
Question 3: What was the State of Alabama during this time period?
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
I. Americans Debate Republicanism
A. Colonies Become States
People consider self-governing colonies basic political unit
- colonists give their allegiance to colony
- idea persists when colonies become states
B. Unity Through a Republic
Colonists believe democracy gives too much power to uneducated
Prefer republic—citizens rule through elected representatives
Views of republicanism, government based on consent of people:
- John Dickinson: put nation’s good above self
- Adam Smith and followers: pursue own interests
C. State Constitutions
Many states limit powers of government leaders
Guarantee specific rights to citizens; stress liberty, not equality
Only white males can vote; in some states must own property
II. The Continental Congress Debates
A. Representation by Population or by State?
Size, population varies; represent people or states in Congress?
Congress believes it represents states; every state gets one vote
B. Supreme Power: Can It Be Divided?
Confederation or alliance: national government, states share powers
Articles of Confederation—laws assigning national, state powers
National government handles war, treaties, weights, measures, mail
No executive or court system established to enforce, interpret laws
C. Western Lands: Who Gets Them?
By 1779, 12 states approve Articles of Confederation
Maryland approves when western land claims given to U.S.
Articles of Confederation go into effect March 1781
D. Governing the Western Lands
Land Ordinance of 1785 creates plan for surveying western lands
Northwest Ordinance of 1787—plan for creating territories, statehood
III. The Confederation Encounters Problems
A. Political and Economic Problems
Confederation lacks unity; states pursue own interests
Congress amasses huge debt during Revolutionary War
Rhode Island rejects tariff on imports; foreign debt cannot be paid
B. Borrowers Versus Lenders
Creditors favor high taxes so they will be paid back
Taxes put farmers in debt; many lose land and livestock
Debtors want large supply paper money; creditors want small supply
C. Foreign-Relations Problems
U.S. does not pay debts to British merchants or compensate Loyalists
In retaliation, Britain refuses to evacuate forts on Great Lakes
In 1784, Spain closes Mississippi River to American navigation
Westerners unable to ship crops east through New Orleans
Congress unable to resolve problems with foreign nations
DIRECTIONS: We will be creating ANCHOR CHARTS on the following topics:
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation (p. 149 for guidance)
Land Ordinances of the 1700s (p. 147 for guidance)
The Structure of the Constitution
The Compromises of the Constitution
Checks and Balances of the Constitution (p.155)
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

Each person will be given a subject and personalized instruction on how to complete your anchor chart. This is not a group assignment. Please work individually or prepare to receive a zero.
LEARNING LOOP 1:
Notes on Chapter 5 Section 1
PRACTICE/PRODUCT:
Major Chapter 5 Topic Points
What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
REFLECTION
DO NOW:
Social Science Skill Building: Economics in History
DIRECTIONS: You should complete a cloze read of the document given to you by Mrs. Martin. A cloze read is a reading strategy that requires you to circle words you don't know/understand and underline the main ideas as you read a document. You will staple this document to your weekly DO NOW sheet. After finishing the cloze read, answer the following questions on your DO NOW sheet:
Question 1: According to economics, what three things are required to produce goods?
Question 2: What was the purpose of the Land Ordinance of 1785?
Question 3: Is our country still concerned with organizing settlement of land today? Why or why not?
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
Describe the process of creating the U.S. Constitution.
I. Nationalists Strengthen the Government
A. Shays' Rebellion
1786–87 armed farmers demand closing of courts to avoid losing farms
Shays’s Rebellion—state militia defeats farmers led by Daniel Shays
Many leaders fear rebellion will spread through country
George Washington calls for stronger national government
B. Call for Convention
5 states send delegates to meeting on interstate trade (1786)
Shays’s Rebellion leads 12 states to join Constitutional Convention
James Madison of Virginia known as “Father of the Constitution”
C. Constitutional Convention Highlights
II. Conflicts lead to Compromise
A. Big States Versus Small States
Delegates recognize need to strengthen central government
- decide to form new government
Madison’s Virginia Plan: bicameral legislature based on population
William Paterson’s New Jersey Plan: single house, one vote per state
Roger Sherman, delegate from Connecticut, proposes Great Compromise:
- Senate has equal representation, elected by state legislatures
- House of Representatives, based on population, elected by people
B. Slavery-Related Issues
South wants slaves in population count for House, not for taxes
North wants slaves in population count for taxes, not for House
Three-Fifths Compromise allows 3/5 of state’s slaves to be counted
Congress given power to regulate foreign trade
Cannot interfere with slave trade for 20 years
III. Creating a New Government
A. Division of Powers
Federalism—division of power between national and state governments
National government has delegated or enumerated powers
Nation handles foreign affairs, defense, interstate trade, money
Powers kept by states are called reserved powers
States handle education, marriage laws, trade within state
Shared powers include right to tax, borrow money, establish courts
B. Separation of Powers
Legislative branch makes laws
Executive branch carries out laws
Judicial branch interprets laws
Checks and balances prevent one branch from dominating the others
Electoral college—electors chosen by states to vote for president
C. Creating the Constitution
Constitution can be changed through amendment process
DIRECTIONS: We will be creating ANCHOR CHARTS on the following topics:
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation (p. 149 for guidance)
Land Ordinances of the 1700s (p. 147 for guidance)
The Structure of the Constitution
The Compromises of the Constitution
Checks and Balances of the Constitution (p.155)
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

Each person will be given a subject and personalized instruction on how to complete your anchor chart. This is not a group assignment. Please work individually or prepare to receive a zero.
PRACTICE/PRODUCT:
Major Ideas Anchor Charts
Describe the process of creating the U.S. Constitution.
REFLECTION
DO NOW:
Social Science Skill Building: Review
DIRECTIONS: Please answer the following questions as a review of the information that we have looked at the current chapter. Please attempt to answer without the use notes or the textbook. You may use the text after attempting on your own first:
Question 1: What was the first governing document of the United States of America?
Question 2: What was the purpose of the Northwest Ordinance of 1787?
Question 3: How many states had to ratify the U.S. Constitution before it became the law of the land?
Question 4: Who were the Federalists? Who were the Anti-Federalists?
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
Who were the Federalists and Anti-Federalists?

What lead to the eventual passage of the United States Constitution by the States?
I. Federalists and Anti-Federalists
A. Controversies over the Constitution
Ratification (official approval) requires support of nine states
Voters elect delegates to vote on ratification at state convention
Process bypasses state legislatures, who are likely to oppose
Federalists favor balance between state, national governments
Antifederalists oppose strong central government:
- may serve interests of privileged minority
- unlikely to manage a large country well
- Constitution does not protect individual rights
B. The Opposing Forces
Urban centers Federalist; merchants, workers favor trade regulations
Small or weak states want protection of strong government
Rural areas Antifederalist; farmers fear additional taxes
Large or strong states fear loss of freedom to strong government
The Federalist—essays that defend, explain, analyze Constitution
Antifederalists read Letters from the Federal Farmer:
- lists rights they want protected
II. The Bill of Rights Leads to Ratification
A. People Demand a Bill of Rights
Antifederalists demand written guarantee of people’s rights
Federalists promise bill of rights if states ratify Constitution
B. Ratification of the Constitution
December 1787–June 1788, nine states ratify Constitution
Federalists need support of large states Virginia and New York
After opposition and debate, Virginia and New York ratify by 1788
The new government becomes a reality in 1789
C. Adoption of a Bill of Rights
1791, Bill of Rights, or first ten amendments, ratified by states
First Amendment—freedom of religion, speech, press, politics
Second, Third—right to bear arms, no quartering of soldiers
Fourth through Eighth—fair treatment for persons accused of crimes
Ninth—people’s rights not limited to those mentioned in Constitution
Tenth—people, states have all rights not specifically assigned
PRACTICE/PRODUCT
Anchor Charts
DIRECTIONS: We will be creating ANCHOR CHARTS on the following topics:
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation (p. 149 for guidance)
Land Ordinances of the 1700s (p. 147 for guidance)
The Structure of the Constitution
The Compromises of the Constitution
Checks and Balances of the Constitution (p.155)
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

Each group has been given a subject and personalized instruction on how to complete your anchor chart. This is a group assignment, so please work appropriately or prepare to receive a zero.

If you are finished, make sure you have submitted your Chapter 5 Vocabulary for a grade. If you have not, get it done!
Who were the Federalists and Anti-Federalists?

What lead to the eventual passage of the United States Constitution by the States?
REFLECTION
DO NOW:
Social Science Skill Building: Primary/Secondary Sources
“When it can be said by any country in the world, my poor are happy, neither ignorance nor distress is to be found among them, my jails are empty of prisoners, my streets of beggars, the aged are not in want, the taxes are not oppressive, the rational world is my friend because I am the friend of happiness. When these things can be said, then may that country boast its constitution and government. Independence is my happiness, the world is my country and my religion is to do good.”
― Thomas Paine, Rights of Man

DIRECTIONS: Please answer the following questions about the quote above:
Question 1: Who is the author of the quote?
Question 2: Summarize what the author is trying to say in this quote.
Question 3: Would this author say that the United States has reached a place to "boast its constitution and government"? Why or why not?
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
How does the United States Constitution affect your life on a daily basis?
DIRECTIONS: We will be FINISHING our ANCHOR CHARTS on the following topics. For you DO NOW today, write "Anchor Chart Completion":
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation (p. 149 for guidance)
Land Ordinances of the 1700s (p. 147 for guidance)
The Structure of the Constitution
The Compromises of the Constitution
Checks and Balances of the Constitution (p.155)
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists

Each group has been given a subject and personalized instruction on how to complete your anchor chart. This is a group assignment, so please work appropriately or prepare to receive a zero.

If you are finished, make sure you have submitted your Chapter 5 Vocabulary for a grade. If you have not, get it done!
LEARNING LOOP 1:
Anchor Charts for Shaping a New Nation
PRACTICE/PRODUCT:
CONSTITUTION WEBQUEST
DIRECTIONS: Once you have completed your Anchor Chart and Chapter 5 Vocabulary, you will collect a Constitution Webquest from Mrs. Martin. You will be reading an article found on the internet and answering questions from it. This will be a quiz grade. The student who submits the assignment completed first with the most correct answers will receive bonus points.

CHAPTER 5 QUIZ ON FRIDAY!
How does the United States Constitution affect your life on a daily basis?
REFLECTION
THE CONSTITUTION
DO NOW:
Social Sciences Skill Building:
Constitution Preparation Assignment
DIRECTIONS: Please open your textbook to page 164 and 165. Read the information on the two pages. On your DO NOW paper, write done the 5 purposes of the United States Constitution. As you finish this assignment, you should flip to page 166 and begin reading the preamble to the Constitution. We will begin the rest of our assignment together.
ESSENTIAL QUESTION
What is the purpose, influence and importance of the United States Constitution?
LEARNING LOOP 1:
Constitution Webquest
DIRECTIONS: We will begin the process and experience of reading the U.S. Constitution and organizing our thoughts and understanding through the use of a graphic organizer. We will begin by discussing the Constitution's purpose and why we need it. Then, we will begin reading, analyzing and understanding.
What is the purpose, influence and importance of the United States Constitution?
REFLECTION
PRACTICE/PRODUCT:
The U.S. Constitution
DIRECTIONS: We will being by looking at Article 1 of the Constitution, and filling out the portion of your graphic organizer labeled "Article 1, A". We will complete this example and two more together. As we finish, you will have the opportunity to ask questions before it will be your turn to finish the reading and analysis with your partner.
Full transcript