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The Immune System
Transcript of The Immune System
By: Julia Cleric,
The Tonsils and the Adenoids
- You have 2 tonsils, located in the back of your mouth. Their purpose is to trap germs that enter your mouth when you breathe.
-These germs are then killed by antibodies. Antibodies are created by immune cells, otherwise known as white blood cells; located throughout all the organs in the Immune system.
-Adenoids are small tissues that
hang in the back of your nasal
cavity, similar to the tonsils.
Lymph Nodes & Vessels
-Lymph Nodes act like tiny filters, removing germs and invader cells that could make you sick. They contain white blood cells to kill off dangerous cells or germs.
-Lymph Nodes run throughout the body,
near the neck, armpits, and legs.
They are connected with thin tubes,
called Lymph Vessels.
-Lymphatic Vessels' purpose is to
absorb fluids from tissues, sending
this fluid to the lymph node to be
-The Thymus is a triangular shaped organ, wedged in between the lungs.
-It's main purpose is to train
white blood cells, more specifically
T-cells (powerful white blood
cells that fight infections) to
only attack invader cells or
-The spleen is a small organ that filters blood. It lets healthy blood cells flow through the body, but prevents invader or unhealthy cells from circulating.
-The cells that didn't pass through are broken
down by larger white blood cells called
- The spleen also stores blood for your body's circulatory system.
-The Appendix is a slender pouch located near the intestines.
-Scientists believe that it once
was used to digest leaves as
primates, however is not needed anymore. This is why it is ok for it
to be removed.
-Peyer's Patches are rough, egg shaped tissues, much like lymph nodes.
-They monitor intestinal bacteria populations and prevent the growth of bad bacteria
-Bone Marrow is a spongy tissue inside all bones. It is incredibly important to the immune system.
-It creates red and white blood cells,
and platelets, all cells needed for the
The blood runs through the the spleen (blue tube), capturing the bad cells, and breaking it down. The new blood is put into the blood supply (red tube)
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus
-Reproduces itself by taking over a cell in body of host
-Human immune system cannot get rid of it
-Attacks T-Cells or CD4 cells- cells in the immune system that fight infection and HIV
-Over time, the immune system/body cannot fight infections and diseases anymore, reaching the final stage of HIV called AIDS
The Immune System
Your immune system may suffer due to lack of sleep.
White blood cells only make up a small percentage of your blood
Dairymaids helped spark development of the first vaccine.
Studies show people who lack humor tend to have less protective immune responses.
Reducing stress boosts the immune system the best.
-The Immune System helps maintain homeostasis in the body by attacking viruses and invader cells, so that they doesn't kill you
or affect any other body systems.
-Humoral immunity: Immunity against antigens and pathogens in the body fluids.
-Cell-Medicated immunity: Primary defense against own cells, when cancerous or infected by viruses.
-Active Immunity: Produced by body's reaction to a vaccine.
-Passive Immunity: when antibodies produced by other animals against a pathogen are injected into bloodstream.
-The immune system is the body's main defense against pathogens (anything that can cause a disease).
-This is done through producing specialized cells that inactivate pathogens.
-Recognizes, attacks, destroys, and
"remembers" each type of pathogen.
-The major function of the immune system is to fight infection through the production of white blood cells that inactivate foreign substances or dangerous cells.
-This process is called developing immunity.
-The immune system serves to defend against pathogens, which is anything that can cause a disease (i.e. harmful bacteria, viruses, etc.).
-The main function is to prevent pathogens from entering the body.
Diseases Associated with the Immune System
also known as seasonal allergies
-More than 3 million cases in the US each year
-Occurs when the immune system is too active
-Overreacts at the particles in the air, attacking them
-Allergens such as pollen, animal dander, dust mites, mold, and chemicals are common causes of allergies
-Allergies are usually diagnosed through skin tests or lab tests
The Immune System
Associated Body Systems
The Lymphatic System
In the body, the lymphatic system moves fluids outside the blood and circulatory system. This system a major pathway that allows for the circulation of immune cells and immune signals. It contains thousands of lymph nodes where immune cells sample and respond to invading pathogens. Tonsils and the appendix are similar to lymph nodes, but are more specialized organs the body uses to develop and mediate immune responses.
The Musculoskeletal System
The movement of muscle is what aids lymph to circulate throughout the body, which is one of the reasons why exercising is extremely important to keep the immune system healthy.
The marrow in the long bones of the body is where red blood cells and white blood cells mature before entering the circulatory and lymphatic system.
The TechnoT is an evolutionary piece of microscopic technology. Designed to be injected into the bloodstream once every 2 weeks, the stream of artificial white blood cell are programmed with one function: to destroy harmful pathogens while leaving the body's cells alone. The TechnoT's goal ultimately is to replace the T-Cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages in a body with a disease like HIV and other lentiviruses, making the body insusceptible to harmful pathogens that destroy the immune system. Possible drawbacks (that are trying to be fixed) include upgrading the TechnoT's ability to attack infected cells as well as pathogens. The side effects include having a weakened real immune system as they become more dependent on bionic white blood cells, so once one starts with the TechnoT, they are not able to stop. The research process and developing is still undergoing: we are currently trying to find a way for the TechnoT to send out signals, informing other white blood cells to leave it alone.
The TechnoT (Patent Pending) has a powerful, insulated-silicon microchip that programs the microbot. It detects dangerous pathogens and disables them with a diluted chemical (that doesn't harm the body) that has similar capabilities of ammonia or bleach. The minuscule turbine (no blades, mild suction) then takes in the pathogen, destroying it thoroughly.