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Focus 13: Ecology

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Nicole Martin

on 6 November 2016

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Transcript of Focus 13: Ecology

Ecology
Focus 13
bocw
What is the difference between evolution & natural selection?
Essential Question
In what ways to species in the ecosystem interact?
Ecology
The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment

Levels of Organization
Biosphere
Biome
Ecosystem
Community
Population
Organism
Biosphere
The part of the Earth that sustains life.
Biome
A large, naturally occuring area categorized based on its temperature and precipitation.
Ecosystem
The biological community and its surrounding environment.
Includes bot biotic and abiotic factors.
Biotic Factors
LIVING things in the environment.
Abiotic factors
Non-living things in the environment.
Community
All populations living and interacting in an area.
population
Includes all members of the same species that live in an area.
Organism
An individual living thing.
Habitat
The particular place an organism lives.
Niche
An organism’s job, strategies & adaptations for environment
Predation
Any organisms between two organisms in which one (the predator) consumer part or all of another (the prey).
Competition
Interaction between two organisms that are using the same limited resources.
Intraspecific
within the same species
Interspecific
between different species
Symbiosis
Relationship in which at least one species depends on the relationship to survive.
There are THREE types!
Mutualism
(+ / +)
Both partners benefit from the relationship.
Commensalism
(+ / 0)
One benefits, the other is unaffected.
Parasitism
(+ / -)
One partner benefits, the other is harmed.
Species Relationships Cards
Identify the type of SYMBIOSIS
DO NOT answer analysis questions!
Exit Ticket
Identify & explain the relationship here.
BOCW
Two male deer competing for mates is an example of what type of competition?
Energy Flow
in ecosystems

BOCW
How does energy pass between organisms in ecosystems?
The Sun
The ultimate source of energy for life.
autotroph
Uses energy from the sun to create energy.
"self-feeding"
Heterotroph
"other-feeding"
Must eat other organisms to gain energy.
Herbivore
eats plants
Carnivore
eats meat
Omnivore
eats both meat and plants
scavenger
Eats dead animals.
Detritivore
Breaks down any dead material to release energy.
"Decomposer"
Energy Flow Diagrams
THREE TYPES
Food Chain
Food Web
Nutrients and energy move from autotrophs to heterotrophs to decomposers.

Simpler diagram.
trophic level
Each feeding step in the passage of energy!
Shows ALL possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community.

Arrow ALWAYS points towards the CONSUMER!
Ecological pyramid
Puts all animals in a certain trophic level on the same tier.
Shows decrease of energy between levels.

Only 10% of energy goes to the next level!
Exit Ticket
How does energy change as you move between trophic levels?
Cycles &
Animal Behavior

BOCw
Which way does the arrow point in food chains and food webs?
essential question
What are the three ways to represent the flow of energy in ecosystems?
How water cycles from the Earth's surface, into the atmosphere, and back again.
Water Cycle
precipitation
Water falling from the atmosphere to the Earth's surface as snow, sleet or rain.
Run-off
When water runs across the surface of the Earth to collect in lakes, rivers or the ocean.
evaporation
Water returning to the atmosphere from rivers, lakes and oceans.
Transpiration
When liquid water is taken up by plants and passes into the atmosphere.
Condensation
Water vapor in the atmosphere forming clouds.
Human activities such as water pollution can negatively effect the water cycle!
Nitrogen Cycle
Transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere.

Needed by all animals. Important part of proteins and nucleic acids.
Nitrogen
The most abundant gas in Earth's atmosphere!
79%
carbon cycle
How carbon molecules move between the living and nonliving world.

Needed by all carbon-based life forms.
animal
behavior
behavior
What an animal does and how it does it.
A response to a stimulus in the environment.
Two types:
Innate
Learned
innate behavior
Inherited, instinctual behavior that animals do automatically.
ex. early survival, reproduction, kinesis, taxis

learned behavior
A variable and flexible behavior that develops during an animal's lifetime.
Directed Movement
Taxis
Automatic change in direction in reaction to a stimulus.
Kinesis
phototaxis
chemotaxis
Change in rate of movement in response to a stimulus.
migration
Automatic movement of animals during certain times of year.
“migratory restlessness” seen in birds bred & raised in captivity

Hibernation
estivation
State of inactivity in response to environmental change or during hot, dry times.
ie. FROGS, SNAILS

State of inactivity and low metabolism, usually during the winter.
ie. BEARS

associative learning
Learning to associate a stimulus with a consequence

2 TYPES:
Operant Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
VOLUNTARY behavior learned due to reinforcement.
BF Skinner
classical conditioning
REFLEX behavior due to a reinforcement.
Ivan Pavlov
Habituation
LOSS of response to a stimulus.
"cry wolf" effect
Allows animals to disregard unimportant stimuli.
problem solving
ie. tool use
This eagle learned to throw goats off a cliff to kill them for food!
imprinting
Learning that is limited to a specific time period in an animal’s life and that is usually irreversible.

Occurs during a CRITICAL PERIOD in a newborns life.
pheromones
Chemical signal that stimulates a response from other individuals.

alarm pheromones to alert others of nearby predators
sex pheromones for mating rituals

Exit Ticket
You train your dog by giving him treats every time he sits on command. What type of learning is this?
Populations
BOCW
When I ring a bell, my cat runs to the kitchen to get a treat.

What type of learning is this?
essential question
How do density-dependent and density-independent factors contribute to the carrying capacity of an environment?
population
A group of organisms of the same species, that in live in a specific area.
exponential growth
The J shaped curve
Growth starts slow, then increases rapidly

As the population gets larger, it grows at a faster rate

limiting factors
Anything that prevents continued population growth.
Examples: predators, food, disease, space

Cause an S shaped curve
Carrying capacity
The maximum number of a species an environment can support.
Limiting factors kick in above this level to lower the population!
Life Raft
Analogy
Disease Lab
Two types of limiting factors
Density dependent
Increases with a higher population.
Disease
Competition
Predation
Parasites
Food
Crowding
Stress

Density independent
Size of population has no impact.
Volcanic eruptions
Temperature
Storms
Floods
Habitat disruption

Human population
Growing exponentially since the industrial revolution!
Demography
Study of human population size.
Population Additions
population subtractions
Births
Immigration
Deaths
Emigration
Immunity
Battling density dependent factors!
The ability of an organism to resist an infection or toxin.
2 types!
Active Immunity
Occurs when an organism produces its own antibodies.
This is how vaccines work!
Your body makes antibodies against the disease!
passive immunity
Occurs when an organism receives already-made antibodies from another organism.
When immunity is passed from mom to baby!
disease resistance
How pathogens fight back!
Remember... some are already naturally and randomly resistant... so how does it work?
What does that...
...have to do with this?
exit ticket
Why is it so important that you take your ENTIRE course of antibiotics when you get sick???
antigen-antibody complex
Pathogens have antigens on their surface.
Antibodies in you recognize them and know to fight the pathogen!
Antigens are the INVADERS -- Antibodies are the DEFENDERS!
BOCW
Differentiate between active and passive immunity.
Human Impacts
Essential Question
In what ways does the growing human population impact the natural environment?
Biodiversity
The variety of species in a specific area.

Increases as you move toward the equator

Brings stability
Improves health

Loss of Biodiversity
Human activities like deforestation, construction, over-hunting and pollution can reduce species variety.
Extinction
The complete eradication of a species from the planet.
Endangered
Numbers of a species become so low that extinction is possible

Threatened
When the population of a species is likely to become endangered

North Carolina
has 61 animals listed on the endangered species list…

American Alligator
Bald Eagle
Loggerhead Sea Turtles
Red Wolf
Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel
Red-cockaded Woodpecker
Humpback Whale
Eastern Puma
Threats to Biodiversity
1. Habitat Loss - Destruction of the homes of animal and plant species.
2. Habitat fragmentation -– separation of wilderness areas from other wilderness areas.
3. Edge Effect –- different conditions along boundaries of an ecosystem

4. Habitat Degradation -– damage to a habitat by pollution

5. Acid Precipitation - rain, snow, sleet, and fog with low pH values. Has a serious impact on lakes and rivers.
*Often caused by BURNING COAL at power plants!

6. Ozone Layer Depletion - allows more UV light to reach Earth.
*Caused by CFCs in aerosol cans!
Invasive Species
Organisms not native to a particular area that were brought there by humans.
Consequences:
Can caused destruction of local habitats and loss of local native species!!!
Conservation Biology
Study and implementation of methods to protect biodiversity.

Species conservation
Natural resource conservation

Carbon Dioxide Levels
Burning of fossil fuels is increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.
*One cause of increasing global temperature.
Crop Rotation
Varying different crops planted in an area from year to year.
Enriches soil.
Prevents nutrient depletion.
Exit Ticket
What changes can you make in your life to reduce your personal on the natural environment?
Minimum Viable Population
The smallest population that can survive in a given environment.
Overshoot
When the continues to grow beyond the carrying capacity.
Die Back
Above the carrying capacity, limiting factors take over to control the population, lowering is back below a sustainable level.
Full transcript