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Focus 13: Ecology
Transcript of Focus 13: Ecology
What is the difference between evolution & natural selection?
In what ways to species in the ecosystem interact?
The study of interactions that take place between organisms and their environment
Levels of Organization
The part of the Earth that sustains life.
A large, naturally occuring area categorized based on its temperature and precipitation.
The biological community and its surrounding environment.
Includes bot biotic and abiotic factors.
LIVING things in the environment.
Non-living things in the environment.
All populations living and interacting in an area.
Includes all members of the same species that live in an area.
An individual living thing.
The particular place an organism lives.
An organism’s job, strategies & adaptations for environment
Any organisms between two organisms in which one (the predator) consumer part or all of another (the prey).
Interaction between two organisms that are using the same limited resources.
within the same species
between different species
Relationship in which at least one species depends on the relationship to survive.
There are THREE types!
(+ / +)
Both partners benefit from the relationship.
(+ / 0)
One benefits, the other is unaffected.
(+ / -)
One partner benefits, the other is harmed.
Identify & explain the relationship here.
The ultimate source of energy for life.
Uses energy from the sun to create energy.
Must eat other organisms to gain energy.
eats both meat and plants
Eats dead animals.
Breaks down any dead material to release energy.
Energy Flow Diagrams
Nutrients and energy move from autotrophs to heterotrophs to decomposers.
Each feeding step in the passage of energy!
Shows ALL possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in a community.
Arrow ALWAYS points towards the CONSUMER!
Puts all animals in a certain trophic level on the same tier.
Shows decrease of energy between levels.
Only 10% of energy goes to the next level!
What an animal does and how it does it.
A response to a stimulus in the environment.
Inherited, instinctual behavior that animals do automatically.
ex. early survival, reproduction, kinesis, taxis
A variable and flexible behavior that develops during an animal's lifetime.
Automatic change in direction in reaction to a stimulus.
Change in rate of movement in response to a stimulus.
Automatic movement of animals during certain times of year.
“migratory restlessness” seen in birds bred & raised in captivity
State of inactivity in response to environmental change or during hot, dry times.
ie. FROGS, SNAILS
State of inactivity and low metabolism, usually during the winter.
Learning to associate a stimulus with a consequence
VOLUNTARY behavior learned due to reinforcement.
REFLEX behavior due to a reinforcement.
LOSS of response to a stimulus.
"cry wolf" effect
Allows animals to disregard unimportant stimuli.
ie. tool use
This eagle learned to throw goats off a cliff to kill them for food!
Learning that is limited to a specific time period in an animal’s life and that is usually irreversible.
Occurs during a CRITICAL PERIOD in a newborns life.
Chemical signal that stimulates a response from other individuals.
alarm pheromones to alert others of nearby predators
sex pheromones for mating rituals
You train your dog by giving him treats every time he sits on command. What type of learning is this?
When I ring a bell, my cat runs to the kitchen to get a treat.
What type of learning is this?
How do density-dependent and density-independent factors contribute to the carrying capacity of an environment?
A group of organisms of the same species, that in live in a specific area.
The J shaped curve
Growth starts slow, then increases rapidly
As the population gets larger, it grows at a faster rate
Anything that prevents continued population growth.
Examples: predators, food, disease, space
Cause an S shaped curve
The maximum number of a species an environment can support.
Limiting factors kick in above this level to lower the population!
Two types of limiting factors
Increases with a higher population.
Size of population has no impact.
Growing exponentially since the industrial revolution!
Study of human population size.
Battling density dependent factors!
The ability of an organism to resist an infection or toxin.
Occurs when an organism produces its own antibodies.
This is how vaccines work!
Your body makes antibodies against the disease!
Occurs when an organism receives already-made antibodies from another organism.
When immunity is passed from mom to baby!
How pathogens fight back!
Remember... some are already naturally and randomly resistant... so how does it work?
What does that...
...have to do with this?
Why is it so important that you take your ENTIRE course of antibiotics when you get sick???
Pathogens have antigens on their surface.
Antibodies in you recognize them and know to fight the pathogen!
Antigens are the INVADERS -- Antibodies are the DEFENDERS!
Differentiate between active and passive immunity.
In what ways does the growing human population impact the natural environment?
The variety of species in a specific area.
Increases as you move toward the equator
Improves health of ecosystems
Loss of Biodiversity
Human activities like deforestation, construction, over-hunting and pollution can reduce species variety.
The complete eradication of a species from the planet.
Numbers of a species become so low that extinction is possible
When the population of a species is likely to become endangered
has 61 animals listed on the endangered species list…
Loggerhead Sea Turtles
Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel
Threats to Biodiversity
1. Habitat Loss - Destruction of the homes of animal and plant species.
2. Habitat fragmentation -– separation of wilderness areas from other wilderness areas.
3. Edge Effect –- different conditions along boundaries of an ecosystem
4. Habitat Degradation -– damage to a habitat by pollution
5. Acid Precipitation - rain, snow, sleet, and fog with low pH values. Has a serious impact on lakes and rivers.
6. Ozone Layer Depletion - allows more UV light to reach Earth.
Organisms not native to a particular area that were brought there by humans.
Can caused destruction of local habitats and loss of local native species!!!
Study and implementation of methods to protect biodiversity.
Natural resource conservation
Carbon Dioxide Levels
Cause - Burning of fossil fuels is increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.
*One cause of increasing global temperature.
Varying different crops planted in an area from year to year.
Prevents nutrient depletion.
Minimum Viable Population
The smallest population that can survive in a given environment.
When the continues to grow beyond the carrying capacity.
Above the carrying capacity, limiting factors take over to control the population, lowering is back below a sustainable level.
Kudzu in North Carolina
"The vine that ate the south"
Warming global temperatures is believed to be anthropogenic (caused by humans) and has many negative impacts.
Rising sea levels
In what ways do animals respond to their environment? How do these actions help them survive?
You are HERE
Causes - deforestation & construction
Causes - construction of roads
Causes - industry
Causes - pollution
Cause - BURNING COAL at Power Plants
Cause - CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) in aerosol cans
Cause - human transportation and travel
How is energy passed from organism to another, and how can this be represented?
How the element CARBON moves through the biosphere between the atmosphere, living organisms, and soil.
How animals return Carbon Dioxide to the atmosphere.
How plants remove Carbon Dioxide from the atmosphere and put it into glucose (C6H12O6).
How humans add extra Carbon to the atmosphere through burning Fossil Fuels.
How dead organisms return Carbon to the soil
How the element NITROGEN moves through the biosphere.
Bacteria play an important role as they add nitrogen to the soil that plants need!