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Four Models of Curriculum Development

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Hatsz Lackpour

on 6 December 2015

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Transcript of Four Models of Curriculum Development

Four Models of Curriculum Development
The Tyler Model
The Oliva Model
The Dewey Model
The Taba Model
Dewey's Curriculum "Plan"
"Unless experience is so conceived that the result is a plan for deciding upon subject-matter, upon methods instruction and discipline, and upon material equipment and social organization of the school, it is wholly in the air"
Dewey's educational plan consists of two parts that are mutually dependent.
1. The first part is to find theoretical answers to the problem of education.
2. The second part is to formulate steps to test the theoretical answers resulting from the first part.
The process of formulating the steps to find the answer to the problem of education in part one will result in the development of another problem.
These two steps are circular and the process reflects Dewey's philosophy of curriculum development.
Dewey believed the ultimate problem in education is to provide experiences that are balanced between "social ends and means" and "individual traits" of the child.
The initial step of formulating a curriculum should not be goal setting rather it should be an examination of the relationship between the child and subject.
To him a curriculum should be borne out of the child's "own social activities" and not school subjects nor current whims and needs.
Dewey's ideal curriculum is a flexible process in which the child is an active participant and the educator guides and directs the child through carefully selected and organized socially relevant experiences.
Dewey's model is not prescriptive nor linear like the other three designs presented. Dewey's model provides a very flexible, loosely constructed theoretical and philosophical framework that guides how best to educate a child.
Tyler's Four Questions and Four Steps Curriculum Development
According to Tyler, curriculum development has to begin with answering the following four questions:
1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
2. What educational experiences can be provided that will likely attain these purposes?
3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
4. How can we determine whether the purposes are being attained?
The first phase in planning is to formulate tentative educational objectives through analysis of information collected from the following three sources:
1. Student-interest and needs- information collected through interviews, questionnaires, test results and teacher observations etc.
2. Society-analysis of aspects of community and greater societal needs
3. Subject-information about the subject or discipline itself
The tentative objectives are then refined and developed through the use of two screens: philosophical and psychological resulting in the final versions of educational objectives.
In the third phase of the process, educational experiences are then selected and organized guided by the final objectives. According to Tyler, educational experiences should:
1. Help develop thinking skills
2. Help develop responsible social attitudes
3. Helpful in creating interest
4. Help develop research skills
The final phase of Tyler's curriculum development is evaluation of the curriculum's effectiveness in fulfilling the established educational objectives.
Discussion of Tyler's model seldom progress beyond the four rationale questions and the three sources to formulate objectives. This could be due to the intuitiveness that the process of answering them produces as the answers guide the user in what actions are needed in order to fulfill those answers.

The Twelve Components of the Oliva Model
Peter F. Oliva's curriculum development model is deductive and involves twelve components in two phases: curriculum development and instructional.
The twelve components are:
I. Establishment of educational aims and beliefs- societal and general students' needs are stated
II. Analysis of needs of the local community, students from the school and each subject area are performed
III. Establishment of curriculum goals (general expectations of the process)
IV. Establishment of curriculum objectives (specific criteria and measurable achievement results)
V. Establish organization and implementation of the curriculum
VI. Establishment of instructional goals
VII. Establishment of instructional objectives
VIII. Selection of instructional strategies
IX. (Part A) Commence selection of evaluation methods for measuring students achievements
X. Implementation of instructional strategies
IX. (Part B) Finalize selection of evaluation methods for both measuring student achievements and critiquing instructional effectiveness
XI. Implementation of instructional efficacy evaluation and adjustment of instructional components
XII. Evaluation of curriculum efficacy and adjustment of curriculum components
Component IX is in two parts ( A and B) which is performed before and after component X respectively.
Components I to V and VII are considered curriculum planning phases
Components V to XI are considered instructional phases
Oliva's design is the most comprehensive and detailed in its coverage of curricular planning compared to the others being presented. It is also more versatile in that the two phases could be planned in isolation or in tandem.
Taba's Five Step Curriculum Model
Taba's suggestion for curriculum planning distinguishes itself by being the only inductive model of the four being presented. Planning begins with specific lessons and then merges together into a curriculum.
Taba also suggested a bottom up direction for curriculum design, where teachers guide the planning instead of administrators.
Her model consist of five phases, with eight stages for the first phase:
1. Teachers produce pilot learning units for each grade or subject:
a. Perform analysis of students' needs
b. Out of results of the above analysis formulate objectives
c. Selection of content
d. Organization of content
e. Selection of educational activities
f. Organization of educational activities
g. Selection of evaluation methods
h. Determine adherence to scope and sequence


2. Installation of test units in classrooms to evaluate the effectiveness of unit in actual classrooms with real students.
3. Revise and adjust elements of unit resulting from evaluation from previous phase.
4. Curriculum planners create framework and state rationale for the unit.
5. Implement the finalized unit into all classrooms. Workshops should be used to ensure a smooth transition.
Taba and Dewey's curriculum models are similar in that they emphasize understanding the child as the most important element in planning of a curriculum.
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